Numerous studies have documented short- and long-term differences in growth and body composition based on whether an infant is breastfed or formula-fed. However, little is known about whether these differences result from the substance consumed (breastmilk vs. formula) or from the delivery method (breast vs. bottle). This prospective pilot study compared the growth and body composition patterns of 19 predominantly breastfed/nursing infants (NG) and 18 infants fed significant quantities of breastmilk by bottle (BG) during the first 6 months of life.
Infants were measured in a laboratory setting each month by trained staff. Growth measures (length, weight, and head circumference) were compared to World Health Organization growth standards. Body composition, including relative fat mass (%FM), was measured using an air-displacement plethysmography system (Pea Pod(®), Life Measurement, Inc., Concord, CA).
With the exception of small differences in length and weight scaled for length (body mass index and weight-for-length z-score) present at birth and continuing for the first 1-2 months of life, NG and BG infants were similar in weight, weight-for-age z-scores, head circumference, fat mass, and %FM. However, BG infants were three times more likely to exceed the 85(th) percentile for weight velocity during the 4-6-month age interval than NG infants (33% vs. 10%, respectively), but this did not reach statistical significance in this sample size (p = 0.12).
This pilot study suggests the delivery method (breast vs. bottle) for breastmilk may not dramatically affect growth for the first 4 months of life; however, future research with larger samples will be needed to carefully evaluate longer-term growth patterns in infants fed breastmilk by bottle.
"This study found no differences in weight or weight - for - age z - scores during the fi rst 4 months of life , suggesting that the mode of feeding ( breast versus bottle ) may not infl uence early growth . This study should be interpreted with caution , however , because the sample size was small ( 36 infants total ) and thus the study may be insuffi ciently powered to detect growth differences ( Bartok , 2011 ) . "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Diet in early infancy has an impact on early growth and the formation of flavour preferences, as well as on later life health outcomes. Although breast milk is the preferred source of nutrition during infancy, more than half of American infants receive infant formula by the age of 4 months. As a group, formula-fed infants weigh more by the age of one year and have a greater risk for later obesity than breastfed infants. However, a recent randomized study found that, when compared to breastfed infants, infants fed an extensively hydrolysed protein formula (ePHF) had more normative weight gain velocity than infants fed cow's milk formula (CMF). Therefore, grouping all formula-fed infants together with respect to certain health outcomes such as obesity may not be appropriate. Scientific evidence also suggests that there are sensitive periods for flavour learning. Infants become familiar with and learn to accept the flavours they experience through their mother's amniotic fluid and breast milk as well as formula. These early experiences influence flavour preferences of children that may affect food choices and therefore later life health. Further research on the influence of early diet on growth, flavour preferences, and food choices is imperative.
International Review of Psychiatry 06/2012; 24(3):219-30. DOI:10.3109/09540261.2012.675573 · 1.80 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A quiet revolution has been taking place in the feeding of US infants in the form of women using electric breast pumps. This revolution in milk expression may be a boon for both mothers and infants if more infants are fed human milk or if they receive human milk for a longer period. Milk expression may also be problematic for mothers, and it may be particularly problematic for infants if they are fed too much, fed milk of an inappropriate composition, or fed milk that is contaminated. As a result, the time has come to determine the prevalence of exclusive and periodic breast milk expression and the consequences of these behaviors for the health of mothers and their infants.
American Journal of Public Health 06/2011; 101(8):1356-9. DOI:10.2105/AJPH.2011.300136 · 4.55 Impact Factor
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