Training in the fasted state facilitates re-activation of eEF2 activity during recovery from endurance exercise.
ABSTRACT Nutrition is an important co-factor in exercise-induced training adaptations in muscle. We compared the effect of 6 weeks endurance training (3 days/week, 1-2 h at 75% VO(2peak)) in either the fasted state (F; n = 10) or in the high carbohydrate state (CHO, n = 10), on Ca(2+)-dependent intramyocellular signalling in young male volunteers. Subjects in CHO received a carbohydrate-rich breakfast before each training session, as well as ingested carbohydrates during exercise. Before (pretest) and after (posttest) the training period, subjects performed a 2 h constant-load exercise bout (~70% of pretest VO(2peak)) while ingesting carbohydrates (1 g/kg h(-1)). A muscle biopsy was taken from m. vastus lateralis immediately before and after the test, and after 4 h of recovery. Compared with pretest, in the posttest basal eukaryotic elongation factor 2 (eEF2) phosphorylation was elevated in CHO (P < 0.05), but not in F. In the pretest, exercise increased the degree of eEF2 phosphorylation about twofold (P < 0.05), and values returned to baseline within the 4 h recovery period in each group. However, in the posttest dephosphorylation of eEF2 was negated after recovery in CHO, but not in F. Independent of the dietary condition training enhanced the basal phosphorylation status of Phospholamban at Thr(17), 5'-AMP-activated protein kinase α (AMPKα), and Acetyl CoA carboxylase β (ACCβ), and abolished the exercise-induced increase of AMPKα and ACCβ (P < 0.05). In conclusion, training in the fasted state, compared with identical training with ample carbohydrate intake, facilitates post-exercise dephosphorylation of eEF2. This may contribute to rapid re-activation of muscle protein translation following endurance exercise.
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ABSTRACT: Ca2+ signalling is proposed to play an important role in skeletal muscle function during exercise. Here, we examined the expression of multifunctional Ca2+-calmodulin-dependent protein kinases (CaMK) in human skeletal muscle and show that CaMKII and CaMKK, but not CaMKI or CaMKIV, are expressed. Furthermore, the effect of exercise duration and intensity on skeletal muscle CaMKII activity and phosphorylation of downstream targets was examined. Eight healthy men exercised at approximately 67% of peak pulmonary O2 uptake(VO2peak) with muscle samples taken at rest and after 1, 10, 30, 60 and 90 min of exercise. Ten other men exercised for three consecutive 10 min bouts at 35%, 60% and 85% VO2peak with muscle samples taken at rest, at the end of each interval and 30 min post-exercise. There was a rapid and transient increase in autonomous CaMKII activity and CaMKII phosphorylation at Thr287 in skeletal muscle during exercise. Furthermore, the phosphorylation of phospholamban (PLN) at Thr17, which was identified as a CaMKII substrate in skeletal muscle, was rapidly (< 1 min) increased by exercise, and remained phosphorylated 5-fold above basal level during 90 min of exercise. The phosphorylation of serum response factor at Ser103, a putative CaMKII substrate, was higher after 30 min of exercise. PLN phosphorylation at Thr17 was higher with increasing exercise intensities. These data indicate that CaMKII is the major multifunctional CaMK in skeletal muscle and its activation occurs rapidly and is sustained during continuous exercise, with the activation being greater during intense exercise.The Journal of Physiology 09/2006; 574(Pt 3):889-903. · 4.38 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The 5'-AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a potent regulator of skeletal muscle metabolism and gene expression. AMPK is activated both in response to in vivo exercise and ex vivo contraction. AMPK is therefore believed to be an important signalling molecule in regulating muscle metabolism during exercise as well as in adaptation of skeletal muscle to exercise training. The first part of this review is focused on different mechanisms regulating AMPK activity during muscle work such as alterations in nucleotide concentrations, availability of energy substrates and upstream AMPK kinases. We furthermore discuss the possible role of AMPK as a master switch in skeletal muscle metabolism with the main focus on AMPK in metabolic regulation during muscle work. Finally, AMPK has a well established role in regulating expression of genes encoding various enzymes in muscle, and this issue is discussed in relation to adaptation of skeletal muscle to exercise training.The Journal of Physiology 08/2006; 574(Pt 1):17-31. · 4.38 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The study compared the net decline of intramyocellular lipids (IMCL) during exercise (n = 18) measured by biochemical assay (BIO) and Oil Red O (ORO) staining on biopsy samples from vastus lateralis muscle and by (1)H-MR spectroscopy (MRS) sampled in an 11 x 11 x 18-mm(3) voxel in the same muscle. IMCL was measured before and after a 2-h cycling bout ( approximately 75% V(.)(O(2) peak)). ORO and MRS measurements showed substantial IMCL use during exercise of 31 +/- 12 and 47 +/- 6% of preexercise IMCL content. In contrast, use of BIO for IMCL determination did not reveal an exercise-induced breakdown of IMCL (2 +/- 9%, P = 0.29) in young healthy males. Correlations between different measures of exercise-induced IMCL degradation were low. Coefficients were 0.48 for MRS vs. ORO (P = 0.07) and were even lower for BIO vs. MRS (r = 0.38, P = 0.13) or ORO (r = 0.08, P = 0.78). This study demonstrates that different methods to measure IMCL in human muscles can result in different conclusions with regard to exercise-induced IMCL changes. MRS has the advantage that it is noninvasive, however, not fiber type specific and hampered by an at least 30-min delay in measurements after exercise completion and may overestimate IMCL use. BIO is the only quantitative method but is subject to variation when biopsies have different fiber type composition. However, BIO yields lower IMCL breakdown compared with ORO and MRS. ORO has the major advantage that it is fiber type specific, and it therefore provides information that is not available with the other methods.AJP Endocrinology and Metabolism 07/2007; 293(1):E428-34. · 4.51 Impact Factor