Tissue factor pathway inhibitor suppresses the growth of human vascular smooth muscle cells through regulating cell cycle.
ABSTRACT Tissue factor pathway inhibitor (TFPI) was reported to suppress the proliferation and migration of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) which play an important role in several vascular proliferative disorders including restenosis. Our preliminary studies demonstrated that TFPI gene induced apoptosis in human vascular smooth muscle cells (hVSMCs). The current study was designed to address the role TFPI gene plays in the cell cycle of hVSMCs. hVSMCs isolated from human umbilical artery were transfected with pIRES-TFPI plasmid which expresses TFPI in eukaryotic cells. As measured by RT-PCR, the expression of TFPI was elevated in the TFPI treated cells, leading to the arrest of the cells at G1 phase as analyzed by flow cytometry. Further study by Western blotting demonstrated that TFPI gene transfer increased the amount of p21 and p53 and decreased the amount of cyclin D and phosphorylated cdk4 and cdk6 in the cells.