Modulation of the root-sourced ABA signal along its way to the shoot in Vitis riparia x Vitis labrusca under water deficit.
ABSTRACT The intensity of the root-sourced abscisic acid (ABA) signal has long been thought to decrease along its long-distance transport pathway, and hence the shoot responses to the ABA signal would be expected to become less sensitive with the increase in plant height. It is reported here that there is a significant modification of the ABA signal intensity in its pathway to leaves in grapevine (Vitis riparia×Vitis labrusca), but in contrast to the expectation that the ABA signal intensity may decrease along its long-distance transport pathway, it was found that the root-sourced ABA signal is gradually intensified along a vine for as long as 3 m under both water-stressed and non-stressed conditions. Consistent with the alterations in ABA signal intensity, stomatal sensitivity to a root-sourced ABA signal was also gradually increased from the base to the apex. Leaf stomatal conductance near the apex was more severely inhibited than in the leaves at the base of the vine. It was observed that xylem pH was significantly increased from the base to the apex, and that artificially changing the xylem sap pH to be more alkaline by feeding with buffers increased the xylem ABA concentration. Our results suggest that the pH gradient along the stem may play a role in the modification and enhancement of ABA signal intensity such that the stomata at the top of canopy can be more sensitively regulated in response to soil drying.
- SourceAvailable from: Julian Theobald[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Accurate quantification of xylem sap ABA concentrations is important to underpin models of root-to-shoot ABA signalling to predict the physiological effects of soil drying. Growing tomato plants in a whole plant pressure chamber allowed sequential xylem sap collection from a detached leaf, the petiole stub of an otherwise intact plant and finally the de-topped root system of the same plant, to determine the impact of xylem sap sampling methodology on xylem ABA concentration. Since xylem sap can contain bound forms of ABA, a novel gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) procedure was developed to chemically separate free ABA from two in planta bound ABA forms known as Adducts I and II and ABA-glucose-ester (ABA-GE). Xylem sap ABA concentrations were highly dependent on the sampling methodology used: the highest concentrations were detected in sap collected by applying an overpressure to detached leaves following the measurement of leaf water potential. Irrespective of xylem sap source, the wild-type cultivars Ailsa Craig and Rheinlands Ruhm had higher free ABA concentrations than a range of ABA-deficient mutants (notabilis, flacca and sitiens). However, in the mutants, concentrations of bound forms of ABA were similar to wild-type plants, and similar to free ABA concentrations. Although xylem concentrations of these bound ABA forms and ABA-GE suggest they have a limited physiological impact on ABA homeostasis in tomato, the methods developed here will allow a more complete understanding of ABA biochemistry and root-to-shoot signalling in species known to have higher concentrations of these compounds.Plant Methods 03/2012; 8:11. · 2.67 Impact Factor