The vitamin D analog, TX527, promotes a human CD4+CD25highCD127low regulatory T cell profile and induces a migratory signature specific for homing to sites of inflammation.

Laboratory of Experimental Medicine and Endocrinology, Catholic University of Leuven, Leuven, Belgium.
The Journal of Immunology (Impact Factor: 5.52). 01/2011; 186(1):132-42. DOI: 10.4049/jimmunol.1000695
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT The use of hypocalcemic vitamin D analogs is an appealing strategy to exploit the immunomodulatory actions of active vitamin D in vivo while circumventing its calcemic side effects. The functional modulation of dendritic cells by these molecules is regarded as the key mechanism underlying their ability to regulate T cell reactivity. In this article, we demonstrate the capacity of the vitamin D analog, TX527, to target T cells directly. Microarray analysis of purified human CD3(+) T cells, cultured in the presence of TX527, revealed differential expression of genes involved in T cell activation, proliferation, differentiation, and migratory capacity. Accordingly, functional analysis showed a TX527-mediated suppression of the T cell proliferative capacity and activation status, accompanied by decreased expression of effector cytokines (IFN-γ, IL-4, and IL-17). Furthermore, TX527 triggered the emergence of CD4(+)CD25(high)CD127(low) regulatory T cells featuring elevated levels of IL-10, CTLA-4, and OX40 and the functional capacity to suppress activation and proliferation of effector T cells. Moreover, the vitamin D analog profoundly altered the homing receptor profile of T cells and their migration toward chemokine ligands. Remarkably, TX527 not only modulated skin-homing receptors as illustrated for the parent compound, but also reduced the expression of lymphoid organ-homing receptors (CD62L, CCR7, and CXCR4) and uniquely promoted surface expression of inflammatory homing receptors (CCR5, CXCR3, and CXCR6) on T cells. We conclude that TX527 directly affects human T cell function, thereby inhibiting effector T cell reactivity while inducing regulatory T cell characteristics, and imprints them with a specific homing signature favoring migration to sites of inflammation.

  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The active vitamin D metabolite 1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25[OH]2 D) potently inhibits dendritic cell (DC) priming of T-cell activation, suggesting that it mediates a homeostatic role in this context. Therefore, careful regulation of 1,25[OH]2 D levels is necessary to avoid inappropriate inhibition of T-cell activation. Cell-autonomous control of vitamin D activity can be modulated by the action of the vitamin D-activating and -inactivating hydroxylases, CYP27B1 and CYP24A1, respectively. We show that in comparison to macrophages, human monocyte-derived DCs exhibit significantly less activation of 25[OH]D to 1,25[OH]2 D, and that DCs predominantly express a truncated CYP27B1 transcript that may contribute to the deficiency in activation of vitamin D. Furthermore, in response to stimulation with 1,25[OH]2 D, up-regulation of the inactivating enzyme CYP24A1 curtailed the functional effects of vitamin D in DCs, but not macrophages. Production of 1,25[OH]2 D by macrophages was adequate to induce expression of vitamin D-responsive genes by DCs, inhibit DC maturation in response to innate immune stimulation and DC-dependent T-cell responses. Our data suggest that in comparison to macrophages, differential regulation of hydroxylases limits autocrine vitamin D activity in DCs, and that paracrine activation of vitamin D exerts a more potent mechanism for homeostatic control of DC function. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
    European Journal of Immunology 02/2014; · 4.97 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The active form of vitamin D3, 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3, is a major regulator of bone and calcium homeostasis. In addition, this hormone also inhibits the proliferation and stimulates the differentiation of normal as well as malignant cells. Supraphysiological doses of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 are required to reduce cancer cell proliferation. However, these doses will lead in vivo to calcemic side effects such as hypercalcemia and hypercalciuria. During the last 25 years, many structural analogs of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 have been synthesized by the introduction of chemical modifications in the A-ring, central CD-ring region or side chain of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 in the hope to find molecules with a clear dissociation between the beneficial antiproliferative effects and adverse calcemic side effects. One example of such an analog with a good dissociation ratio is calcipotriol (Daivonex®), which is clinically used to treat the hyperproliferative skin disease psoriasis. Other vitamin D analogs were clinically approved for the treatment of osteoporosis or secondary hyperparathyroidism. No vitamin D analog is currently used in the clinic for the treatment of cancer although several analogs have been shown to be potent drugs in animal models of cancer. Transcriptomics studies as well as in vitro cell biological experiments unraveled basic mechanisms involved in the antineoplastic effects of vitamin D and its analogs. 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 and analogs act in a cell type- and tissue-specific manner. Moreover, a blockade in the transition of the G0/1 toward S phase of the cell cycle, induction of apoptosis, inhibition of migration and invasion of tumor cells together with effects on angiogenesis and inflammation have been implicated in the pleiotropic effects of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 and its analogs. In this review we will give an overview of the action of vitamin D analogs in tumor cells and look forward how these compounds could be introduced in the clinical practice.
    Frontiers in Physiology 01/2014; 5:122.
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The GRCh37.p13 primary assembly of the human genome contains 20805 protein coding mRNA, and 37147 non-protein coding genes and pseudogenes that as a result of RNA processing and editing generate 196501 gene transcripts. Given the size and diversity of the human transcriptome, it is timely to revisit what is known of VDR function in the regulation and targeting of transcription. Early transcriptomic studies using microarray approaches focused on the protein coding mRNA that were regulated by the VDR, usually following treatment with ligand. These studies quickly established the approximate size, and surprising diversity of the VDR transcriptome, revealing it to be highly heterogenous and cell type and time dependent. With the discovery of microRNA, investigators also considered VDR regulation of these non-protein coding RNA. Again, cell and time dependency has emerged. Attempts to integrate mRNA and miRNA regulation patterns are beginning to reveal patterns of co-regulation and interaction that allow for greater control of mRNA expression, and the capacity to govern more complex cellular events. As the awareness of the diversity of non-coding RNA increases, it is increasingly likely it will be revealed that VDR actions are mediated through these molecules also. Key knowledge gaps remain over the VDR transcriptome. The causes for the cell and type dependent transcriptional heterogenetiy remain enigmatic. ChIP-Seq approaches have confirmed that VDR binding choices differ very significantly by cell type, but as yet the underlying causes distilling VDR binding choices are unclear. Similarly, it is clear that many of the VDR binding sites are non-canonical in nature but again the mechanisms underlying these interactions are unclear. Finally, although alternative splicing is clearly a very significant process in cellular transcriptional control, the lack of RNA-Seq data centered on VDR function are currently limiting the global assessment of the VDR transcriptome. VDR focused research that complements publically available data (e.g., ENCODE Birney et al., 2007; Birney, 2012), TCGA (Strausberg et al., 2002), GTEx (Consortium, 2013) will enable these questions to be addressed through large-scale data integration efforts.
    Frontiers in physiology. 01/2014; 5:181.

Full-text (2 Sources)

Available from
May 22, 2014