Satellite cell loss and impaired muscle regeneration in selenoprotein N deficiency.
ABSTRACT Selenoprotein N (SelN) deficiency causes a group of inherited neuromuscular disorders termed SEPN1-related myopathies (SEPN1-RM). Although the function of SelN remains unknown, recent data demonstrated that it is dispensable for mouse embryogenesis and suggested its involvement in the regulation of ryanodine receptors and/or cellular redox homeostasis. Here, we investigate the role of SelN in satellite cell (SC) function and muscle regeneration, using the Sepn1(-/-) mouse model. Following cardiotoxin-induced injury, SelN expression was strongly up-regulated in wild-type muscles and, for the first time, we detected its endogenous expression in a subset of mononucleated cells by immunohistochemistry. We show that SelN deficiency results in a reduced basal SC pool in adult skeletal muscles and in an imperfect muscle restoration following a single injury. A dramatic depletion of the SC pool was detected after the first round of degeneration and regeneration that totally prevented subsequent regeneration of Sepn1(-/-) muscles. We demonstrate that SelN deficiency affects SC dynamics on isolated single fibres and increases the proliferation of Sepn1(-/-) muscle precursors in vivo and in vitro. Most importantly, exhaustion of the SC population was specifically identified in muscle biopsies from patients with mutations in the SEPN1 gene. In conclusion, we describe for the first time a major physiological function of SelN in skeletal muscles, as a key regulator of SC function, which likely plays a central role in the pathophysiological mechanism leading to SEPN1-RM.
SourceAvailable from: Michael W Lawlor[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The triad is a skeletal muscle substructure responsible for the regulation of excitation-contraction coupling. It is formed by the close apposition of the T-tubule and the terminal sarcoplasmic reticulum. A rapidly growing list of skeletal myopathies, here referred to as triadopathies, are caused by gene mutations in components of the triad. These disorders, at their root, are caused by defects in excitation contraction coupling and intracellular calcium homeostasis. Secondary abnormalities in triad structure and/or function are also reported in several muscle diseases, most notably certain muscular dystrophies. This review highlights the current understanding of both primary and secondary triadopathies, and identifies important concepts yet to be fully addressed in the field. The emphasis of the review is both on the pathogenesis of triadopathies and their potential treatment.Journal of the American Society for Experimental NeuroTherapeutics 08/2014; 11(4). DOI:10.1007/s13311-014-0300-3 · 3.88 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Background Chronic alcohol ingestion may cause severe biochemical and pathophysiological derangements to skeletal muscle. Unfortunately, these alcohol-induced events may also prime skeletal muscle for worsened, delayed, or possibly incomplete repair following acute injury. As alcoholics may be at increased risk for skeletal muscle injury, our goals were to identify the effects of chronic alcohol ingestion on components of skeletal muscle regeneration. To accomplish this, age- and gender-matched C57Bl/6 mice were provided normal drinking water or water that contained 20% alcohol (v/v) for 18–20 wk. Subgroups of mice were injected with a 1.2% barium chloride (BaCl2) solution into the tibialis anterior (TA) muscle to initiate degeneration and regeneration processes. Body weights and voluntary wheel running distances were recorded during the course of recovery. Muscles were harvested at 2, 7 or 14 days post-injection and assessed for markers of inflammation and oxidant stress, fiber cross-sectional areas, levels of growth and fibrotic factors, and fibrosis. Results Body weights of injured, alcohol-fed mice were reduced during the first week of recovery. These mice also ran significantly shorter distances over the two weeks following injury compared to uninjured, alcoholics. Injured TA muscles from alcohol-fed mice had increased TNFα and IL6 gene levels compared to controls 2 days after injury. Total protein oxidant stress and alterations to glutathione homeostasis were also evident at 7 and 14 days after injury. Ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) induction was delayed in injured muscles from alcohol-fed mice which may explain, in part, why fiber cross-sectional area failed to normalize 14 days following injury. Gene levels of TGFβ1 were induced early following injury before normalizing in muscle from alcohol-fed mice compared to controls. However, TGFβ1 protein content was consistently elevated in injured muscle regardless of diet. Fibrosis was increased in injured, muscle from alcohol-fed mice at 7 and 14 days of recovery compared to injured controls. Conclusions Chronic alcohol ingestion appears to delay the normal regenerative response following significant skeletal muscle injury. This is evidenced by reduced cross-sectional areas of regenerated fibers, increased fibrosis, and altered temporal expression of well-described growth and fibrotic factors.10/2013; 1(1). DOI:10.1186/2050-490X-1-2
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ABSTRACT: Although statins remain the cornerstone of lipid-lowering therapy for reducing the burden of atherosclerotic vascular disease, their administration has been associated with muscle-related adverse effects, including myalgia and rhabdomyolysis. Such adverse events are probably due to reduced antioxidant defenses associated with fewer intermediate metabolites in the cholesterol synthesis pathway. We hypothesize that the concomitant inhibition of xanthine oxidase via coadministration of allopurinol with statins could diminish reactive oxygen species (ROS)-related muscle damage, which would have in turn have positive effects on both the incidence of muscle-related adverse events and cardiovascular outcomes. Accordingly, inhibition of xanthine oxidase has been previously shown to be effective for reducing biomarkers of muscle damage following exercise in professional athletes. Because of the widespread statin utilization and increasing trends in their therapeutic use in atherosclerotic vascular diseases, the proposed strategy could have important clinical implications for reducing statin-induced myalgia and rhabdomyolysis.Atherosclerosis 12/2014; 239(1). DOI:10.1016/j.atherosclerosis.2014.12.055 · 3.97 Impact Factor