Crucial elements in suicide prevention strategies.
ABSTRACT Ways of conceptualizing suicide prevention are reviewed briefly, and the preventive model: Universal, Selected, and Indicated prevention (USI) is chosen as the structure for the literature review, and the discussion. Universal preventive interventions are directed toward entire population; selective interventions are directed toward individuals who are at greater risk for suicidal behaviour; and indicated preventions are targeted at individuals who have already begun self-destructive behaviour. On the universal prevention level, an overview of the literature is presented with focus on restrictions in firearms and carbon monoxide gas. At the selective prevention level, a review of risk of suicide in homelessness and schizophrenia and risk factors for suicide in schizophrenia is conducted and possible interventions are mentioned together with the evidence for their effect. Suicide rate and preventive measures in affective disorder are also touched upon. At the indicated prevention level, studies of fatal and non-fatal suicide acts after suicide attempt are mentioned. The evidence of preventive measures to reduce repetition rates is presented. Finally, the state of the art is discussed with regard to prevention at the universal, the selected and the indicated level and clinical and research implications are outlined.
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ABSTRACT: South African studies have found that country wide suicide rates are high and that people diagnosed with HIV/AIDS can have increased suicidal ideation and resultant suicide risk. In this study, we evaluated the effect of a brief psychosocial intervention on preventing suicide ideation after a positive HIV test result. Suicidal ideation was assessed by both groups of patients having to complete a suicide risk screening scale (Annexure 1). The study was conducted at a university-affiliated hospital in Durban, KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. Consenting adult patients (age 18 years and older) recently diagnosed as being HIV-positive following voluntary HIV counselling and testing were enrolled in the study. Participants (N=126) were assigned to standard post-test counselling (SPTC). Thereafter, every alternate patient (N= 64) was counselled using a brief suicide preventive intervention (BSPI). Patients were assessed at baseline, 72 hours later and 6 weeks after a positive HIV test result. The balance of 62 participants who received SPTC only were the control group, and compared with the BSPI group. Although both groups benefited from post-test counselling, results from the BSPI group demonstrated a clinically significant decrease in suicidal ideation over the time period studied. The results provide preliminary evidence on the efficacy of a BSPI for recently diagnosed vulnerable HIV-positive persons and the importance of educating such patients on suicideprevention strategies.The African journal of psychiatry. Le Journal africain de psychiatrie 03/2014; 17:543-547. DOI:10.4172/1994-8220.1000112
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ABSTRACT: Reviews the book, Suicide Risk Management: A Manual for Health Professionals, Second Edition by Sonia Chehil and Stan Kutcher (2012). This second edition follows the 2006 first edition book by Stanley Kutcher and Sonia Chehil by the same name. This paperback book of 160 pages is a practical book, targeted toward mental health practitioners: psychiatrists, clinical psychologists, general practitioners, nurses, and other allied health professionals. The aims of this book are to (1) provide information regarding epidemiology and risk factors associated with suicide, (2) provide information to aid in the understanding and assessment of suicide risk, (3) provide a program pertaining to suicide evaluation, and (4) introduce an assessment tool and explains how to identify and manage suicidal individuals. It is a short, clearly written book, which presents a number of figures, tables, bullet lists, and essays aimed at providing practical guidance and tools for the management of the suicidal or potentially suicidal patient. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)01/2012; 53(3):255. DOI:10.1037/a0028987
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ABSTRACT: Background Alterations in rhythmicity and vegetative functions have been reported as correlates of suicidality, particularly in patients with mood disorders. No investigation has addressed their impact on patients with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Aim of the present study was to fulfill this gap.Methods Sixty-five out- and inpatients with DSM-5 PTSD were assessed by using the Mood Spectrum-Self Report-Lifetime Version (MOODS-SR), a questionnaire for lifetime mood spectrum symptomatology including alterations in circadian/seasonal rhythms and vegetative functions. Six items of the MOODS-SR were combined and dichotomized to assess suicidal ideation and/or attempts.ResultsSignificant and positive associations were found between symptoms of lifetime dysregulations in rhythmicity and vegetative functions and suicidal ideation and/or attempts. All MOODS-SR sub-domains (rhythmicity, sleep, appetite/weight, sexual function, physical symptoms) were associated with an increased likelihood of suicidal ideation, but only changes in appetite/weight were associated with greater odd ratios of suicide attempts (OR¿=¿2.099 95% CI 1.148-3.841).Conclusions Our results suggest that lifetime dysregulations in rhythmicity and vegetative functions may represent correlates of suicidality in patients with DSM-5 PTSD.BMC Psychiatry 12/2014; 14(1):352. DOI:10.1186/s12888-014-0352-2 · 2.24 Impact Factor