Under-mining health: Environmental justice and mining in India
ABSTRACT Despite the potential for economic growth, extractive mineral industries can impose negative health externalities in mining communities. We estimate the size of these externalities by combining household interviews with mine location and estimating statistical functions of respiratory illness and malaria among villagers living along a gradient of proximity to iron-ore mines in rural India. Two-stage regression modeling with cluster corrections suggests that villagers living closer to mines had higher respiratory illness and malaria-related workday loss, but the evidence for mine workers is mixed. These findings contribute to the thin empirical literature on environmental justice and public health in developing countries.
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ABSTRACT: Health geographers have generally been content to adopt measures of distance, access and the lack of resources as the metrics of social (in)justice without critically placing their research in a framework of social justice. The purpose of this review is twofold: first, to examine recent research in health geography under three themes – access to care, neighbourhoods, and health and environmental justice; second, to introduce a debate about idealist theory as a way of introducing a theory of social justice into health geography which might prove valuable to underpin what many health geographers are trying to do in their research on access to care, neighbourhoods, and health and environmental justice.Progress in Human Geography 08/2013; 38(3). DOI:10.1177/0309132513498339 · 4.39 Impact Factor
Article: Measure of the mining image[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Mining is a very important activity for economic and social development, but traditionally research has centered on its technical and operative aspects, instead of studying the image transmitted to the rest of society. This has originated diverse problems, fundamentally due to the information which the population receives via the mass media and which sometimes creates a current of opinion contrary to the development of this extraction activity. In order to resolve the mining communication problems it is necessary to develop a measure of the mining image based on a reliable and valid scale. This is a useful tool in developing a procedure to connect the society with other mining stakeholders and to analyze whether the real image of mining activity is similar to the image transmitted and perceived by society, since the news about the mining industry usually are focused on extreme situations or catastrophes that monopolize the information in the media. In this study a field research based on an attributes scale is developed, with the aim of measuring the mining image. The surveys were carried out in a mining area, where people have direct and real information about the mining industry and its consequences on society, environment and economy.Resources Policy 09/2014; 41:23–30. DOI:10.1016/j.resourpol.2014.01.004 · 2.14 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: This article surveys fifty-two empirical studies on relationships between extractive industries and poverty, addressing both poverty impacts and possible linkage mechanisms. Distinguishing these studies by mode of resource extraction, we find industrial mining to be more frequently associated with poverty exacerbation, and artisanal mining with poverty reduction. Poverty exacerbation findings are more pronounced in cross-national statistical studies and ethnographic local case studies, especially when relative deprivation and longer-term impacts are taken into account; while sub-national census-based studies tend to show lower poverty levels in areas with extractive sector activities. A review of thirteen specific linkages between extractive industries and poverty highlights the importance of governance institutions and the limited effects of Corporate Social Responsibility activities. Methodologically, our survey points to the dominance of industrial mining-related data in cross-national and sub-national studies and the overlooked effects of artisanal and small-scale mining on poverty reduction at analytical scales larger than community-level. Such findings call for integrated studies assessing effects on poverty at various scales and attending to the specificities of mining-related livelihoods. Nested mixed-methods including place-based ethnographic observation, longitudinal surveys, as well as socioeconomic and political analysis across multiple scales are needed to provide more robust contextual understandings of the relationships between extractive sectors and poverty.01/2015; 2(1):162-176. DOI:10.1016/j.exis.2014.11.001