Under-mining health: Environmental justice and mining in India
ABSTRACT Despite the potential for economic growth, extractive mineral industries can impose negative health externalities in mining communities. We estimate the size of these externalities by combining household interviews with mine location and estimating statistical functions of respiratory illness and malaria among villagers living along a gradient of proximity to iron-ore mines in rural India. Two-stage regression modeling with cluster corrections suggests that villagers living closer to mines had higher respiratory illness and malaria-related workday loss, but the evidence for mine workers is mixed. These findings contribute to the thin empirical literature on environmental justice and public health in developing countries.
- SourceAvailable from: José A. Ruiz San Román
- "The experts were interviewed in-depth for the purpose of determining the internal structure of the survey and the variables that should measure the mining image. The initial scale consisted of eighteen items where five are related to the social impact of the mining activity (Esteves, 2008; Department of Resources Energy and Tourism, 2010; Saha et al., 2011), these being: health, education, social services, sports and leisure, and quality of life (Metcalfe, 1982; Torkington et al., 2011; Ivanova et al., 2007). Four variables measured the environmental impact (Auty, 2003; Peprah, 2008; Lockie et al., 2009; Franks et al., 2010; Giurco et al., 2012): influence on the environment , impact on nature, restoration of space/area affected by mining and the influence on agriculture. "
Article: Measure of the mining image[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Mining is a very important activity for economic and social development, but traditionally research has centered on its technical and operative aspects, instead of studying the image transmitted to the rest of society. This has originated diverse problems, fundamentally due to the information which the population receives via the mass media and which sometimes creates a current of opinion contrary to the development of this extraction activity. In order to resolve the mining communication problems it is necessary to develop a measure of the mining image based on a reliable and valid scale. This is a useful tool in developing a procedure to connect the society with other mining stakeholders and to analyze whether the real image of mining activity is similar to the image transmitted and perceived by society, since the news about the mining industry usually are focused on extreme situations or catastrophes that monopolize the information in the media. In this study a field research based on an attributes scale is developed, with the aim of measuring the mining image. The surveys were carried out in a mining area, where people have direct and real information about the mining industry and its consequences on society, environment and economy.Resources Policy 09/2014; 41:23–30. DOI:10.1016/j.resourpol.2014.01.004 · 2.14 Impact Factor
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- "Traditionally, resource curse debates have focused on the economic prospects of the 'nation', while at the local level, discussion has centered on the formation of 'resource enclaves' (Auty, 2006; Cardoso and Faletto, 1979). Research into the experiences of host communities indicates a pattern whereby social risk accrues most acutely among those people living nearest to mining activities (Littlewood, 2013; Saha et al., 2011). 1 It has been clear for some time that the market system is unable to account for and regulate the kind of dynamic social and human rights risk associated with large scale development projects, and that new deliberate efforts are required to ensure that social risk is identified, understood and responded to by those parties involved in mining development. There is significant debate about how best to 'regulate' corporate responsibilities in mining and whether 'solutions' should be entered into voluntarily, or mandated by the rule of law and enforced by the state (Schiavi and Solomon, 2007). "
ABSTRACT: ׳Free prior and informed consent׳ (FPIC) has emerged as an influential theme in contemporary debates about mining and development. This paper considers the social knowledge base required to actualize the notion of FPIC in particular mining contexts. FPIC introduces heightened social performance requirements at a time where many mining companies are still grappling with the fundamentals of their corporate social responsibilities (CSR). The authors critically review the character of the current FPIC debate as it relates to mining, and outline four conditional factors required to safeguard against social risk. They posit that such risk could be exacerbated by mining companies that fail to comprehensively account for social context and conditionalities. Given the industry׳s broad-based discursive engagement with FPIC, there is an urgent need to extend the current debate beyond legal application and engage with other, equally important, base concepts from the social sciences for the operationalization of FPIC.Resources Policy 09/2014; 41(1):91–100. DOI:10.1016/j.resourpol.2014.03.006 · 2.14 Impact Factor
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- "Although there is some ambiguity over the nature and size of bias in self-reported health data (Saha et al. 2011, Subramaniam et al. 2009), we include socioeconomic variables such as education and income in the analysis to control for potential biases. e remaining outcome ensues from a unique aspect of these studies: direct measurement of indoor air pollution. "
ABSTRACT: Improved cook stoves (ICS) are widely viewed as a relatively cheap and effective way to resolve a major public health problem: acute respiratory infections from indoor air pollution. It is no surprise therefore that South Asia, a hotspot for bio-mass burning, has witnessed concerted research supporting the design and promotion of ICS and ventilated kitchens. Much less is known about the co-benefits of ICS in terms of reduced fuelwood use, forest and biodiversity conservation, time savings for women and children, and regional climate benefits (because of reductions in short-lived greenhouse gases and black carbon). We address this gap by drawing on a pair of multi-disciplinary studies in the Syangja, Chitwan, and Rusuwa districts of Nepal in 2006 and use socio-economic surveys of approximately 1000 households and pollution monitoring to measure cooking technology, kitchen design, fuel type, fuelwood consumption, time allocation, particulate matter concentration, health conditions, medical costs, and socio-economic status. Statistical (paired) comparisons of households across districts differing in socio-demographic and eco-climatic dimensions show that ICS can reduce PM concentration (10-70%), acute respiratory illnesses (10-30%), medical costs (10-50%), cooking and collection time (20%), fuelwood consumption (25%) and GHG emissions (25%). These results are robust to econometric modeling (using instrumental variable methods) that account for omitted variable bias and endogenous household responses. If these impacts collectively imply high internal-rates-of-return on ICS use, why aren't more households adopting this technology? We find that credit and peer-pressure are key constraints, and that info-regulatory campaigns and micro-finance schemes under CDM hold tremendous promise.136st APHA Annual Meeting and Exposition 2008; 10/2008