Under-mining health: Environmental justice and mining in India

Climate Change Program, Centers for Disease Control, USA.
Health & Place (Impact Factor: 2.81). 09/2010; 17(1). DOI: 10.1016/j.healthplace.2010.09.007
Source: PubMed


Despite the potential for economic growth, extractive mineral industries can impose negative health externalities in mining communities. We estimate the size of these externalities by combining household interviews with mine location and estimating statistical functions of respiratory illness and malaria among villagers living along a gradient of proximity to iron-ore mines in rural India. Two-stage regression modeling with cluster corrections suggests that villagers living closer to mines had higher respiratory illness and malaria-related workday loss, but the evidence for mine workers is mixed. These findings contribute to the thin empirical literature on environmental justice and public health in developing countries.

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    • "Their extraction disturbs complex ecosystems. Studies have confirmed that mining has had an impact on the health of communities located around mines (Saha et al., 2011; Shandro et al., 2011) as well as on agricultural production (Mishra and Pujari, 2008; Li et al., 2011; Aragon and Rud, 2013). 4. Study area, data collection and methodology 4.1. "
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    ABSTRACT: This study assesses the cost of coal mining on agriculture and human health in one of the prominent mining regions in the Indian state of Odisha. The study is based on household-level data collected from four mining (polluted) villages and two control (non-polluted) villages in the Ib Valley region of western Odisha. An “effects-on-production” approach has been used to analyze the effects of pollution on agriculture, whereas a “human-capital” approach and a probit model have been applied to derive estimates about the effects of mining on human health. The results reveal that the quantity of fertilizers used influences the average paddy yield positively, whereas the location of villages influences negatively the same yield, implying that average yield per acre in the mining villages is significantly lower than that of the control villages. Respiratory illness is the most prevalent and costly health problem among individuals residing in the area. Females are more likely to suffer from respiratory illness than males. Further, families housing greater numbers of literate persons have fewer incidence of respiratory disease. Inhabitants of the mining villages show higher exposure to respiratory diseases, than do inhabitants of the control villages.
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    • "The experts were interviewed in-depth for the purpose of determining the internal structure of the survey and the variables that should measure the mining image. The initial scale consisted of eighteen items where five are related to the social impact of the mining activity (Esteves, 2008; Department of Resources Energy and Tourism, 2010; Saha et al., 2011), these being: health, education, social services, sports and leisure, and quality of life (Metcalfe, 1982; Torkington et al., 2011; Ivanova et al., 2007). Four variables measured the environmental impact (Auty, 2003; Peprah, 2008; Lockie et al., 2009; Franks et al., 2010; Giurco et al., 2012): influence on the environment , impact on nature, restoration of space/area affected by mining and the influence on agriculture. "
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    ABSTRACT: Mining is a very important activity for economic and social development, but traditionally research has centered on its technical and operative aspects, instead of studying the image transmitted to the rest of society. This has originated diverse problems, fundamentally due to the information which the population receives via the mass media and which sometimes creates a current of opinion contrary to the development of this extraction activity. In order to resolve the mining communication problems it is necessary to develop a measure of the mining image based on a reliable and valid scale. This is a useful tool in developing a procedure to connect the society with other mining stakeholders and to analyze whether the real image of mining activity is similar to the image transmitted and perceived by society, since the news about the mining industry usually are focused on extreme situations or catastrophes that monopolize the information in the media. In this study a field research based on an attributes scale is developed, with the aim of measuring the mining image. The surveys were carried out in a mining area, where people have direct and real information about the mining industry and its consequences on society, environment and economy.
    Resources Policy 09/2014; 41:23–30. DOI:10.1016/j.resourpol.2014.01.004 · 2.14 Impact Factor
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    • "Traditionally, resource curse debates have focused on the economic prospects of the 'nation', while at the local level, discussion has centered on the formation of 'resource enclaves' (Auty, 2006; Cardoso and Faletto, 1979). Research into the experiences of host communities indicates a pattern whereby social risk accrues most acutely among those people living nearest to mining activities (Littlewood, 2013; Saha et al., 2011). 1 It has been clear for some time that the market system is unable to account for and regulate the kind of dynamic social and human rights risk associated with large scale development projects, and that new deliberate efforts are required to ensure that social risk is identified, understood and responded to by those parties involved in mining development. There is significant debate about how best to 'regulate' corporate responsibilities in mining and whether 'solutions' should be entered into voluntarily, or mandated by the rule of law and enforced by the state (Schiavi and Solomon, 2007). "
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    ABSTRACT: ׳Free prior and informed consent׳ (FPIC) has emerged as an influential theme in contemporary debates about mining and development. This paper considers the social knowledge base required to actualize the notion of FPIC in particular mining contexts. FPIC introduces heightened social performance requirements at a time where many mining companies are still grappling with the fundamentals of their corporate social responsibilities (CSR). The authors critically review the character of the current FPIC debate as it relates to mining, and outline four conditional factors required to safeguard against social risk. They posit that such risk could be exacerbated by mining companies that fail to comprehensively account for social context and conditionalities. Given the industry׳s broad-based discursive engagement with FPIC, there is an urgent need to extend the current debate beyond legal application and engage with other, equally important, base concepts from the social sciences for the operationalization of FPIC.
    Resources Policy 09/2014; 41(1):91–100. DOI:10.1016/j.resourpol.2014.03.006 · 2.14 Impact Factor
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