Under-mining health: Environmental justice and mining in India
ABSTRACT Despite the potential for economic growth, extractive mineral industries can impose negative health externalities in mining communities. We estimate the size of these externalities by combining household interviews with mine location and estimating statistical functions of respiratory illness and malaria among villagers living along a gradient of proximity to iron-ore mines in rural India. Two-stage regression modeling with cluster corrections suggests that villagers living closer to mines had higher respiratory illness and malaria-related workday loss, but the evidence for mine workers is mixed. These findings contribute to the thin empirical literature on environmental justice and public health in developing countries.
SourceAvailable from: Deanna Kemp[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: ׳Free prior and informed consent׳ (FPIC) has emerged as an influential theme in contemporary debates about mining and development. This paper considers the social knowledge base required to actualize the notion of FPIC in particular mining contexts. FPIC introduces heightened social performance requirements at a time where many mining companies are still grappling with the fundamentals of their corporate social responsibilities (CSR). The authors critically review the character of the current FPIC debate as it relates to mining, and outline four conditional factors required to safeguard against social risk. They posit that such risk could be exacerbated by mining companies that fail to comprehensively account for social context and conditionalities. Given the industry׳s broad-based discursive engagement with FPIC, there is an urgent need to extend the current debate beyond legal application and engage with other, equally important, base concepts from the social sciences for the operationalization of FPIC.Resources Policy 09/2014; 41:91–100. DOI:10.1016/j.resourpol.2014.03.006 · 2.14 Impact Factor
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: This article surveys fifty-two empirical studies on relationships between extractive industries and poverty, addressing both poverty impacts and possible linkage mechanisms. Distinguishing these studies by mode of resource extraction, we find industrial mining to be more frequently associated with poverty exacerbation, and artisanal mining with poverty reduction. Poverty exacerbation findings are more pronounced in cross-national statistical studies and ethnographic local case studies, especially when relative deprivation and longer-term impacts are taken into account; while sub-national census-based studies tend to show lower poverty levels in areas with extractive sector activities. A review of thirteen specific linkages between extractive industries and poverty highlights the importance of governance institutions and the limited effects of Corporate Social Responsibility activities. Methodologically, our survey points to the dominance of industrial mining-related data in cross-national and sub-national studies and the overlooked effects of artisanal and small-scale mining on poverty reduction at analytical scales larger than community-level. Such findings call for integrated studies assessing effects on poverty at various scales and attending to the specificities of mining-related livelihoods. Nested mixed-methods including place-based ethnographic observation, longitudinal surveys, as well as socioeconomic and political analysis across multiple scales are needed to provide more robust contextual understandings of the relationships between extractive sectors and poverty.01/2015; 2(1):162-176. DOI:10.1016/j.exis.2014.11.001
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: This article adopts a “pathways to sustainability” approach to study lead mining in rural China. Through an in-depth case study, it reveals how shifting mining practices are tied to institutional and political economic contexts, cost-benefit distribution, and changes in livelihood resources and strategies. It weaves together an analysis of livelihood practices with a study of attitudes to livelihood and environment, which are usually researched separately. In turn, it demonstrates that a longitudinal analysis may resolve the contradictory accounts of whether mining aids or hinders development, and whether local communities are victims or beneficiaries of such development.World Development 10/2014; 62:189–200. DOI:10.1016/j.worlddev.2014.05.006 · 1.73 Impact Factor