What happened when the environment met DISC1? Showing the interactive effects of poly I:C and DISC1 on mouse phenotypes related to mood disorders.
Neuroscience Research Unit, Pfizer Global Research and Development, Groton, Connecticut 06340, USA.Biological psychiatry (Impact Factor: 8.93). 12/2010; 68(12):1080-1. DOI:10.1016/j.biopsych.2010.10.016
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ABSTRACT: The acid-base disturbances accompanying emersion were studied in the scallop Pecten maximus (L.). Most changes in acid-base and ionic parameters were evident within 2 h of emersion. There was a decrease in haemolymph PO2, pH and in the concentration of Mg and an increase in the concentrations of both bicarbonate and Ca in the haemolymph. The osmotic pressure of the haemolymph did not alter significantly during emersion. After 72 h emersion, there was significant mortality among scallops. At this time haemolymph PO2 and pH were extremely low although the concentrations of divalent ions had returned to pre-exposure levels. Haemolymph bicarbonate remained elevated although only at a concentration twice that of the controls. The haemolymph of P. maximus displayed a progressive respiratory acidosis during emersion that was not ameliorated by the release of shell buffering substances. It is suggested that the inability of P. maximus to counter the respiratory acidosis encountered during emersion is responsible for the poor survival of this species in air.Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology - J EXP MAR BIOL ECOL. 01/1994; 182(1):15-25.
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ABSTRACT: In fast, glycolytic muscles, oxidative phosphorylation presumably facilitates recuperation from exhaustive exercise and supports growth and maintenance metabolism. Given the shifts in pH with extensive glycolytic activity, the pH optima of mitochondrial processes should indicate whether mitochondria are adapted for recuperation from exercise or for growth and maintenance. We examined this question using mitochondria from the phasic adductor muscle of the scallop, Euvola (Pecten) ziczac, collected from the Golfo de Cariaco, Venezuela in 1992 and 1993. Scallop muscle mitochondria showed well coupled oxidation of glutamate and pyruvate at pH 7.0 and 6.4. The preferred substrates (glutamate, pyruvate and succinate) were oxidized at approximately 40 nmol O2 min-1 mg-1 mitochondrial protein at 25C, while malate and glutamine were oxidized at 75% and proline at 30% of these rates. Neither palmitoyl carnitine nor aspartate were oxidized. Succinate oxidation was not coupled to ADP utilization at pH 7.0 but was somewhat coupled at pH 6.4. Generally, State 3 rates of oxygen uptake were similar at pH 7.0 and 6.4. Maximal rates of oxidation of glutamate and pyruvate showed broad pH optima. For both glutamate and pyruvate, the highest respiratory control ratio (RCR) values were found at pH 6.5. The saturation curves of scallop muscle mitochondria for pyruvate, glutamate and ADP were well described by the Michaelis-Menten equation. The affinity for pyruvate was greater at pH 6.4 (apparent K m, app=0.013 mM) than at pH 7.0 (K m, app=0.026 mM) while the affinity for ADP (K m, app=0.015 mM) and that for glutamate (K m, app=0.55 mM) changed little with pH. The ADP affinity was the same whether pyruvate or glutamate was the carbon substrate. The combination of maintenance of sensitivity to ADP with an enhanced affinity for pyruvate at acidic pH values should facilitate recuperation from bouts of glycolytic activity. Scallops harvested in September and those harvested in January differed in the maximal rates of glutamate and pyruvate oxidation.Marine Biology 04/1995; 122(3):409-416. · 2.47 Impact Factor
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