Increased fMRI signal with age in familial Alzheimer's disease mutation carriers
ABSTRACT Although many Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients have a family history of the disease, it is rarely inherited in a predictable way. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies of nondemented adults carrying familial AD mutations provide an opportunity to prospectively identify brain differences associated with early AD-related changes. We compared fMRI activity of 18 nondemented autosomal dominant AD mutation carriers with fMRI activity in eight of their noncarrier relatives as they performed a novelty encoding task in which they viewed novel and repeated images. Because age of disease onset is relatively consistent within families, we also correlated fMRI activity with subjects' distance from the median age of diagnosis for their family. Mutation carriers did not show significantly different voxelwise fMRI activity from noncarriers as a group. However, as they approached their family age of disease diagnosis, only mutation carriers showed increased fMRI activity in the fusiform and middle temporal gyri. This suggests that during novelty encoding, increased fMRI activity in the temporal lobe may relate to incipient AD processes.
SourceAvailable from: Sune Nørhøj Jespersen[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: It is widely accepted that hypoperfusion and changes in capillary morphology are involved in the etiopathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). This is difficult to reconcile with the hyperperfusion observed in young high-risk subjects. Differences in the way cerebral blood flow (CBF) is coupled with the local metabolic needs during different phases of the disease can explain this apparent paradox. This review describes this coupling in terms of a model of cerebral oxygen availability that takes into consideration the heterogeneity of capillary blood flow patterns. The model predicts that moderate increases in heterogeneity requires elevated CBF in order to maintain adequate oxygenation. However, with progressive increases in heterogeneity, the resulting low tissue oxygen tension will require a suppression of CBF in order to maintain tissue metabolism. The observed biphasic nature of CBF responses in preclinical AD and AD is therefore consistent with progressive disturbances of capillary flow patterns. Salient features of the model are discussed in the context of AD pathology along with potential sources of increased capillary flow heterogeneity.Neurobiology of aging 10/2012; 34(4). DOI:10.1016/j.neurobiolaging.2012.09.011 · 4.85 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: During the last two decades, imaging of neural activation has become an invaluable tool for assessing the functional organization of the human brain in vivo. Due to its widespread application in neuroscience, functional neuroimaging has raised the interest of clinical researchers in its possible use as a diagnostic biomarker. A hallmark feature of many neurodegenerative diseases is their chronic non-linear dynamic and highly complex preclinical course. Neurodegenerative diseases unfold over years to decades through clinically silent and asymptomatic stages of early adaptive, compensatory to pathophysiological (i.e. actively neurodegenerative) and decompensatory mechanisms in the brain - phases that are increasingly being considered as critical for primary and secondary preventive and therapeutic measures. Emerging evidence supports the concept of a potentially fully reversible functional phase that may precede the onset of micro- and macrostructural and cognitive decline, a potentially late-stage "neurodegenerative" phase of a primary neurodegenerative disorder. Alzheimer's disease serves as an ideal model to test this hypothesis supported by the neural network model of the healthy and diseased brain. Being highly dynamic in nature, brain activation and neuronal network functional connectivity represent not only candidate diagnostic but also candidate surrogate markers for interventional trials. Potential caveats of functional imaging are critically reviewed with focus on confound variables such as altered neurovascular coupling as well as parameters related to task- and study design.Progress in Neurobiology 06/2011; 95(4):557-69. DOI:10.1016/j.pneurobio.2011.05.008 · 10.30 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Rare autosomal dominant mutations result in familial Alzheimer's disease (FAD) with a relatively consistent age of onset within families. This provides an estimate of years until disease onset (relative age) in mutation carriers. Increased AD risk has been associated with differences in functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) activity during memory tasks, but most of these studies have focused on possession of apolipoprotein E allele 4 (APOE4), a risk factor, but not causative variant, of late-onset AD. Evaluation of fMRI activity in presymptomatic FAD mutation carriers versus noncarriers provides insight into preclinical changes in those who will certainly develop AD in a prescribed period of time. Adults from FAD mutation-carrying families (nine mutation carriers, eight noncarriers) underwent fMRI scanning while performing a memory task. We examined fMRI signal differences between carriers and noncarriers, and how signal related to fMRI task performance within mutation status group, controlling for relative age and education. Mutation noncarriers had greater retrieval period activity than carriers in several AD-relevant regions, including the left hippocampus. Better performing noncarriers showed greater encoding period activity including in the parahippocampal gyrus. Poorer performing carriers showed greater retrieval period signal, including in the frontal and temporal lobes, suggesting underlying pathological processes. Hum Brain Mapp, 2012. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.Human Brain Mapping 12/2013; 34(12). DOI:10.1002/hbm.22141 · 6.92 Impact Factor