Diabetic retinopathy is associated with subclinical atherosclerosis in newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes mellitus
ABSTRACT We aimed to evaluate the association between diabetic microangiopathy and subclinical atherosclerosis as a marker of cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk in patients with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes.
A total of 142 newly diagnosed type 2 diabetics who were free from CVD underwent evaluation of diabetic microangiopathy. Subclinical atherosclerosis was assessed by measuring carotid intima-media thickness (IMT), and the 10-year absolute risk of CVD was estimated using the UK Prospective Diabetes Study (UKPDS) Risk Engine.
Subclinical atherosclerosis was found in 27 subjects (19.0%). The rates of hypertension and diabetic retinopathy were significantly higher among patients with subclinical atherosclerosis. The UKPDS 10-year risk for CVD was significantly increased in subjects with subclinical atherosclerosis. Old age, hypertension and the presence of diabetic retinopathy showed a significant association to subclinical atherosclerosis after further adjustments for gender, body mass index, smoking status, HbA1c, HDL cholesterol, LDL cholesterol and the presence of diabetic nephropathy.
This study shows that diabetic retinopathy is an independent risk marker for subclinical atherosclerosis in patients with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes. We suggest that a diagnosis of diabetic retinopathy may warrant a more careful cardiovascular assessment even in the early stages of diabetes.
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- "Only one study was classified as high quality (Jadad score of 4) , and thirteen studies were classified as low quality (Jadad score of 2 or 3) –, . Randomisation was a prerequisite for inclusion in this meta-analysis, so all studies were randomised, but only two trails mentioned the method for sequence generation , . Thirteen studies were double-blind –, –, and one study did not describe blinding . "
ABSTRACT: Observational studies have revealed that higher serum vitamin E concentrations and increased vitamin E intake and vitamin E supplementation are associated with beneficial effects on glycaemic control in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). However, whether vitamin E supplementation exerts a definitive effect on glycaemic control remains unclear. This article involves a meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials of vitamin E to better characterise its impact on HbA1c, fasting glucose and fasting insulin. PubMed, EMBASE and the Cochrane Library were electronically searched from the earliest possible date through April 2013 for all relevant studies. Weighted mean difference (WMD) was calculated for net changes using fixed-effects or random-effects models. Standard methods for assessing statistical heterogeneity and publication bias were used. Fourteen randomised controlled trials involving individual data on 714 subjects were collected in this meta-analysis. Increased vitamin E supplementation did not result in significant benefits in glycaemic control as measured by reductions in HbA1c, fasting glucose and fasting insulin. Subgroup analyses revealed a significant reduction in HbA1c (-0.58%, 95% CI -0.83 to -0.34) and fasting insulin (-9.0 pmol/l, 95% CI -15.90 to -2.10) compared with controls in patients with low baseline vitamin E status. Subgroup analyses also demonstrated that the outcomes may have been influenced by the vitamin E dosage, study duration, ethnic group, serum HbA1c concentration, and fasting glucose control status. In conclusion, there is currently insufficient evidence to support a potential beneficial effect of vitamin E supplementation on improvements of HbA1c and fasting glucose and insulin concentrations in subjects with T2DM.PLoS ONE 04/2014; 9(4):e95008. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0095008 · 3.23 Impact Factor
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- "The prevalence of type II diabetes mellitus, particularly in urban India, is increasing; we observed it to be around 28% in subjects older than 40 years (Raman et al., 2009). Type II diabetes has a significant association with comorbidities, already present at the time of diagnosis (American Diabetes Association, 2011; Di Pietro et al., 2007; Son et al., 2011). It is recommended that all patients, once diagnosed with type II diabetes, undergo a complete evaluation including a dilated fundus examination (American Diabetes Association , 2011; UK Prospective Diabetes Study Group, 1998). "
ABSTRACT: The aims of this study were to report the prevalence of various microvascular complications and to identify the various clinical and biochemical characteristics related to these complications in subjects with newly diagnosed type II diabetes. Of the 5999 subjects enumerated, 1414 subjects with diabetes (both known and newly diagnosed) were analyzed for the study. Among the diabetic subjects, 248 (17.5%) were newly diagnosed with diabetes and the remaining had history of diabetes. All subjects underwent a detailed standard evaluation to detect diabetic retinopathy (fundus photography), neuropathy (vibration pressure threshold), and nephropathy (microalbuminuria). The prevalence of any form of microvascular complication was 30.2% (95% confidence interval [CI]=24.5-35.9). The prevalence of diabetic retinopathy was 4.8%, and that of diabetic nephropathy and neuropathy was 10.5%. The risk factors for developing any form of microvascular complication were increasing age (odds ratio [OR]=1.07, 95% CI=1.04-1.11, P<.0001), increasing systolic blood pressure (OR=1.03, 95% CI=1.01-1.06, P=.001), and increasing hemoglobin (OR=1.39, 95% CI=1.09-1.79, P=.011). The risk factors for diabetic retinopathy and diabetic nephropathy were increasing systolic blood pressure (OR=1.06 [P=.001] for retinopathy and OR=1.04 [P=.012] for nephropathy) and increasing hemoglobin (OR=2.20 [P=.007] for retinopathy and OR=1.57 [P=.023] for nephropathy). The risk factor for diabetic neuropathy was increasing age (OR=1.12, P<.0001). Nearly one third of the newly diagnosed type II diabetes subjects had some form of microvascular complication; nephropathy, and neuropathy being commoner than retinopathy.Journal of diabetes and its complications 03/2012; 26(2):123-8. DOI:10.1016/j.jdiacomp.2012.02.001 · 1.93 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE To examine the interactive relationship between diabetic retinopathy (DR) and diabetic nephropathy (DN) in type 2 diabetic patients, and to elucidate the role of DR and microalbuminuria on the onset of macroalbuminuria and renal function decline.RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS We explored the effects of DR and microalbuminuria on the progression of DN from normoalbuminuria and low microalbuminuria (<150 mg/gCr) to macroalbuminuria or renal function decline in the Japan Diabetes Complications Study (JDCS), which is a nationwide randomized controlled study of type 2 diabetic patients focusing on lifestyle modification. Patients were divided into four groups according to presence or absence of DR and MA: normoalbuminuria without DR [NA(DR-)] (n = 773), normoalbuminuria with DR [NA(DR+)] (n = 279), microalbuminuria without DR [MA(DR-)] (n = 277), and microalbuminuria with DR [MA(DR+)] (n = 146). Basal urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio and DR status were determined at baseline and followed for a median of 8.0 years.RESULTSAnnual incidence rates of macroalbuminuria were 1.6/1,000 person-years (9 incidences), 3.9/1,000 person-years (8 incidences), 18.4/1,000 person-years (34 incidences), and 22.1/1,000 person-years (22 incidences) in the four groups, respectively. Multivariate-adjusted hazard ratios of the progression to macroalbuminuria were 2.48 (95% CI 0.94-6.50; P = 0.07), 10.40 (4.91-22.03; P < 0.01), and 11.55 (5.24-25.45; P < 0.01) in NA(DR+), MA(DR-), and MA(DR+), respectively, in comparison with NA(DR-). Decline in estimated glomerular filtration rate (GFR) per year was two to three times faster in MA(DR+) (-1.92 mL/min/1.73 m(2)/year) than in the other groups.CONCLUSIONS In normo- and low microalbuminuric Japanese type 2 diabetic patients, presence of microalbuminuria at baseline was associated with higher risk of macroalbuminuria in 8 years. Patients with microalbuminuria and DR showed the fastest GFR decline. Albuminuria and DR should be considered as risk factors of renal prognosis in type 2 diabetic patients. An open sharing of information will benefit both ophthalmologists and diabetologists.Diabetes Care 08/2013; 36(9). DOI:10.2337/dc12-2327 · 8.57 Impact Factor