Lactobacillus plantarum lipoteichoic acid down-regulated Shigella flexneri peptidoglycan-induced inflammation.
ABSTRACT Bacterial peptidoglycans (PGNs) are recognized by the host's innate immune system. This process is mediated by the NOD/CARD family of proteins, which induces inflammation by activating nuclear factor (NF)-κB. Excessive activation of monocytes by Shigella flexneri PGN (flexPGN) leads to serious inflammatory diseases such as intestinal bowel diseases (IBD) and Crohn's disease. In this study, we examined whether Lactobacillus plantarum lipoteichoic acid (pLTA) could attenuate the pro-inflammatory signaling induced by flexPGN in human monocytic THP-1 cells. Compared to control THP-1 cells, pLTA-tolerant cells showed a significant reduction in TNF-α and IL-1β production in response to flexPGN. We also examined the inhibition of NF-κB and the activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) in pLTA-tolerant cells. We found that the expression of NOD2 in pLTA-tolerant cells was down-regulated at the mRNA and protein levels, suggesting that pLTA is a potent modulator of the pro-inflammatory NOD2-related signaling pathways induced by flexPGN. Together, these data indicate that pLTA induces cross-tolerance against flexPGN. Notably, these effects are related not only to IL-1 signaling, which is known to play a role in LPS tolerance, but also to NOD-Rick signaling. This study provides insight into how commensal microflora may contribute to homeostasis of the host intestinal tract.
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ABSTRACT: Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis are the major types of chronic inflammatory bowel disease occurring in the colon and small intestine. A growing body of research has proposed that probiotics are able to attenuate the inflammatory symptoms of these diseases in vitro and in vivo. However, the mechanism of probiotic actions remains unclear. Our results suggested Lactobacillus plantarum MYL26 inhibited inflammation in Caco-2 cells through regulation of gene expressions of TOLLIP, SOCS1, SOCS3, and IkappaBalpha, rather than SHIP-1 and IRAK-3. We proposed that live/ heat-killed Lactobacillus plantarum MYL26 and bacterial cell wall extract treatments impaired TLR4-NFkappab signal transduction through Tollip, SOCS-1 and SOCS-3 activation, thus inducing LPS tolerance. Our findings suggest that either heat-killed probiotics or probiotic cell wall extracts are able to attenuate inflammation through pathways similar to that of live bacteria.BMC Microbiology 08/2013; 13(1):190. · 3.10 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Probiotics are beneficial microbes that confer a realistic health benefit on the host, which in combination with prebiotics, (indigestible dietary fibre/carbohydrate), also confer a health benefit on the host via products resulting from anaerobic fermentation. There is a growing body of evidence documenting the immune-modulatory ability of probiotic bacteria, it is therefore reasonable to suggest that this is potentiated via a combination of prebiotics and probiotics as a symbiotic mix. The need for probiotic formulations has been appreciated for the health benefits in "topping up your good bacteria" or indeed in an attempt to normalise the dysbiotic microbiota associated with immunopathology. This review will focus on the immunomodulatory role of probiotics and prebiotics on the cells, molecules and immune responses in the gut mucosae, from epithelial barrier to priming of adaptive responses by antigen presenting cells: immune fate decision-tolerance or activation? Modulation of normal homeostatic mechanisms, coupled with findings from probiotic and prebiotic delivery in pathological studies, will highlight the role for these xenobiotics in dysbiosis associated with immunopathology in the context of inflammatory bowel disease, colorectal cancer and hypersensitivity.Nutrients 01/2013; 5(6):1869-912. · 2.07 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Chronic inflammation plays an important role in atherogenesis. Experimental studies have demonstrated the accumulation of monocytes/macrophages in atherosclerotic plaques caused by inflammation. Here, we report the inhibitory effects of lipoteichoic acid (LTA) from Lactobacillus plantarum (pLTA) on atherosclerotic inflammation. pLTA inhibited the production of proinflammatory cytokines and nitric oxide in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated cells and alleviated THP-1 cell adhesion to HUVEC by down-regulation of adhesion molecules such as intracellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-I), vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1), and E-selectin. The inhibitory effect of pLTA was mediated by inhibition of NF-κB and activation of MAP kinases. Inhibition of monocyte/macrophage infiltration to the arterial lumen was shown in pLTA-injected ApoE mice, which was concurrent with inhibition of MMP-9 and preservation of CD31 production. The antiinflammatory effect mediated by pLTA decreased expression of atherosclerotic markers such as COX-2, Bax, and HSP27 and also cell surface receptors such as TLR4 and CCR7. Together, these results underscore the role of pLTA in suppressing atherosclerotic plaque inflammation and will help in identifying targets with therapeutic potential against pathogen-mediated atherogenesis.Molecules and Cells 02/2013; 35(2):115-24. · 2.21 Impact Factor