Article

Measurement site of visceral adipose tissue and prediction of metabolic syndrome in youth.

Division of Weight Management & Wellness, Children's Hospital of Pittsburgh of UPMC, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Pittsburgh, PA 15224, USA.
Pediatric Diabetes (Impact Factor: 2.13). 12/2010; 12(3 Pt 2):250-7. DOI: 10.1111/j.1399-5448.2010.00705.x
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT It is unknown whether measurement site of visceral adipose tissue (VAT) influences the relationship between VAT and associated health risk in youth and if so, whether ethnic differences exist in this relationship. We examined the influence of the measurement site of VAT on the relationships between VAT and metabolic syndrome (MetS) in African-American (AA) and American-White (AW) youth.
Healthy AA (n = 54) and AW (n = 54) children and adolescents (age: 8-18 yr; BMI: 15.3-42.5 kg/m(2)).
VAT mass was derived using a series of five transverse images measured by magnetic resonance imaging, extending from 5 cm below to 15 cm above L4-L5. MetS was defined using a modified IDF criteria.
In AA, VAT measure at 5 cm above L4-L5 (R(2) = 0.93) was most strongly (p < 0.05) correlated with VAT mass and was a significantly (p < 0.05) stronger correlate as compared to L4-L5 (R(2) = 0.84). In AW, VAT measures at 5 cm (R(2) = 0.93) and 10 cm (R(2) = 0.93) above L4-L5 were most strongly (p < 0.05) correlated with VAT mass; however, these were not stronger correlates as compared to L4-L5 (R(2) = 0.91). In AW, all VAT measures were significantly (p < 0.05) associated with an increased odds ratio (OR) for prevalent MetS, wherein the VAT mass [OR = 5.32(1.9-15.0)] and VAT at L4-L5[OR = 5.99(1.9-18.4)] were most strongly associated with MetS. In contrast, only VAT at 10 cm above L4-L5 [OR = 4.39 (1.1-18.1)] was significantly (p < 0.05) associated with MetS in AA.
In AA and AW youth, the measurement site for VAT has impact on the estimation of total VAT and the magnitude of the association with obesity-related health risks.

Download full-text

Full-text

Available from: Jennifer L Kuk, Aug 19, 2014
0 Followers
 · 
94 Views
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Quantities as well as distributions of adipose tissue (AT) are significantly related to cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors and can be altered with caloric restriction. This study investigated which cross-sectional slice location of AT is most strongly correlated with changes in CVD risk factors after caloric restriction in obese Korean women. Thirty-three obese pre-menopausal Korean women (32.4 ± 8.5 yrs, BMI 27.1 ± 2.3 kg/m(2)) participated in a 12 weeks caloric restriction program. Subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) and visceral adipose tissue (VAT) were measured using computed tomography (CT) scans at the sites of L2-L3, L3-L4, and L4-L5. Fasting serum levels of glucose, insulin, triglyceride, total cholesterol (TC), low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), leptin and homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) were observed. Pearson's partial correlation coefficients were used to assess the relationship between AT measurement sites and changes in CVD risk factors after calorie restriction. When calories were reduced by 350 kcal/day for 12 weeks, body weight (-2.7%), body fat mass (-8.2%), and waist circumference (-5.8%) all decreased (P < 0.05). In addition, following caloric restriction, serum levels of glucose (-4.6%), TC (-6.2%), LDL-C (-5.3%), leptin (-17.6%) and HOMA-IR (-18.2%) decreased significantly (P < 0.05) as well. Changes in VAT at the level of L3-L4 were significantly greater than those at other abdominal sites, and these changes were correlated with changes in TC (P < 0.05), LDL-C (P < 0.001), SBP (P < 0.001) and HOMA-IR (P < 0.01). These results show that VAT at L3-L4 had a stronger correlation with CVD risk factors than with other AT measurement sites after caloric restriction.
    Nutrition research and practice 02/2013; 7(1):43-8. DOI:10.4162/nrp.2013.7.1.43 · 1.13 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: We examined the joint and independent associations between VAT and LF with insulin sensitivity (IS) and lipids in seventy-one obese adolescents (BMI > 95th, 14.9 ± 1.8 years). VAT was assessed by magnetic resonance imaging and LF was quantified by proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy. IS was evaluated by a 3-hour hyperinsulinemic (80 mU/m2/min)-euglycemic clamp. Independent associations between VAT and LF on metabolic variables were assessed in mutually adjusted multivariate models. The joint association between VAT and LF on metabolic variables was assessed by categorizing participants into a low VAT + low LF group (n=35), high VAT + low LF group (n=26), or high VAT + high LF group (n=10) based on a VAT median split (1.17kg) and high (≥5%) and low (<5%) LF. Both VAT and LF were independently associated with fasting insulin, 2-hour insulin, insulin AUC, IS, and triglycerides (P<0.05). Adolescents with high VAT + high LF had higher 2-hour glucose, glucose AUC, 2-hour insulin, triglycerides, and lower insulin sensitivity compared to adolescents with high VAT only (P<0.025 for all). In obese adolescents, VAT and LF were independently associated with insulin sensitivity and dyslipidemia, and the concomitant presence of VAT and LF is strongly associated with metabolic risk factors.
    Biochemistry and Cell Biology 11/2014; DOI:10.1139/bcb-2014-0064 · 2.35 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Zusammenfassung Neben dem eigentlichen Übergewicht, das durch den BMI definiert ist, spielen auch die Verteilung, Komposition und biologische Aktivität von Fettgewebe im menschlichen Körper eine entscheidende Rolle bei der Risikostratifikation für kardiovaskuläre Erkrankungen. Verschiedene nichtinvasive Techniken stehen zur Verfügung, um die unterschiedlichen Fettkompartimente zu identifizieren und quantifizieren. Dabei nehmen die Magnetresonanztomographie (MRT) und die Computertomographie (CT) einen besonderen Stellenwert ein, da diese Verfahren die Akquisition von 3D-Datensätzen erlauben. Generell wird zunächst das Fettgewebe in subkutane und viszerale Kompartimente unterschieden, wobei das viszerale Fett eine deutlich höhere biologische Aktivität (z. B. bei der Sekretion von endokrinen Entzündungsfaktoren) aufweist. Obwohl beide Kompartimente eine Assoziation zu kardiovaskulären Erkrankungen haben, die z. T. unabhängig von bereits bekannten Risikofaktoren ist, ist die Assoziation weitaus stärker für viszerales Fett. Besonders interessant sind Studienergebnisse, die auf einen lokalen Einfluss von viszeralem Fett auf Arteriosklerose hinweisen, der durch die Sekretion proinflammatorischer Zytokine erklärt werden kann. So zeigte sich, dass das mit der CT gemessene perikardiale Fettvolumen mit koronarer Arteriosklerose assoziiert ist, unabhängig vom kardiovaskulären Risikoprofil. Dieser Beitrag soll eine Übersicht über die Messmethoden und potenzielle Bedeutung einzelner Fettkompartimente für die kardiovaskuläre Risikostratifikation geben.
    Der Radiologe 05/2011; 51(5):372-378. DOI:10.1007/s00117-010-2088-4 · 0.41 Impact Factor