CD4+/CD25+ cells in systemic inflammation in COPD.
ABSTRACT The autoimmune reaction is recently suspected to play a role in the pathogenesis of chronic obstructive lung disease (COPD). As COPD is a systemic disease, the elements of an autoimmune response in circulatory system is of interest. It has been shown that regulatory T cells are important in the control of autoimmunity. There are some data on a role of adiponectin in the regulation of immune reactions. The objective of this study was to assess the elements of autoimmune reaction in the peripheral blood (PB) of patients with COPD. Twenty-eight patients with mild/moderate COPD and 20 healthy volunteers were investigated. Flow cytometry method with mixtures of monoclonal antibodies anti: CD14/CD45, CD3/CD19, CD4/CD25/CTLA4 and CD8/CD25 were used. Concentration of adiponectin was measured using ELISA method. We observed significantly lower proportion of CD4+/CD25+ as well as CD4+/CD25+ (high) cells in COPD patients than in healthy controls (15.3 versus 17.8% and 0.79 versus 1.54%, respectively, P < 0.05). The proportion of CTLA4+ cells in CD25+ cells and the mean fluorescence of CTLA4 on CD4+ cells were higher in patients than in healthy controls (10.4 versus 4.7%, P < 0.05, 189% versus 149%, non significant, respectively). We found significantly elevated concentration of adiponectin in patients when compared to healthy subjects (15.4 versus 8.5 μl/ml, P < 0.05). We found that the adiponectin/BMI ratio correlated with the decrease of FEV(1) %. The results of this study support the possible role of CD4/CD25/CTLA4 cells and adiponectin in the systemic inflammation in COPD.
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ABSTRACT: Previously, it had been shown that T-lymphocytes are the predominant inflammatory cells found in the alveolar wall of smokers and their numbers correlated with the extent of emphysema. However, the phenotype of these cells was not defined. The aim of this study was to describe the different T-cell phenotypes and investigate the possible presence of apoptosis in the lung parenchyma of smokers. Samples from lungs were obtained at surgery from 15 patients who smoked and six who had never smoked. Samples were frozen and prepared for histological and immunocytochemical examination. Slides were stained for CD3+, CD4+, CD8+, gammadelta T-cells, CD56 natural killers ((NK) cells), and elastase (neutrophils). Anti-CD95 monoclonal antibodies and in situ end-labelling techniques were used to detect Fas expression and apoptosis. Positive staining cells were expressed as cells-mm alveolar wall-, percentage of total cells, and Fas/APO and apoptosis index. Emphysema was identified macroscopically, microscopically and reported as present or absent. All subjects had pulmonary function tests before surgery. Neutrophils were the predominant cell in the lung parenchyma of nonsmokers and smokers without emphysema. In smokers with emphysema, the CD3+ and CD8+ were the predominant cells (p<0.05) in the alveolar wall. gammadelta cells were increased in all smokers and no increased numbers of NK cells was found. The T-cell numbers x mm alveolar wall(-1) showed a bilinear relationship with the amount smoked increasing at an inflection point of 30 packs yr(-1) (R2= 0.345; p < 0.01). Apoptosis in smokers showed a bilinear relationship with the amount smoked increasing sharply in smokers with emphysema (R2=0.3613; p < 0.009). It is concluded that the pathogenesis of emphysema might be mediated by T-lymphocytes, mainly CD8+ cytolytic T-cells, and that apoptosis might be one of the mechanisms of lung destruction leading to the development of emphysema. If this is the case, it could be speculated that T-cell inflammation is a response to antigenic stimuli originating in the lung and induced by cigarette smoking.European Respiratory Journal 06/2001; 17(5):946-53. · 6.36 Impact Factor
Article: Dual personality of memory T cells.Trends in Immunology 06/2002; 23(5):226-8. · 9.49 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: A smoking-induced inflammatory reaction in the airways and lung parenchyma, comprised mainly of neutrophils and alveolar macrophages, has long been accepted to be the major cause of COPD in smokers. Recent reports have underlined the role of the T lymphocyte as a potentially important factor in the inflammatory process leading to COPD. It has been found that, in the airways and the lung parenchyma, the presence of T cells, predominantly CD8+ T cells, can distinguish between smokers with and without COPD. In addition to T cells, other inflammatory cell types such as neutrophils and macrophages are probably essential in the initial inflammatory process leading to the breakdown of lung tissue, perhaps producing peptides eventually recognized by T cells as antigenic. This would provide an explanation for the T-cell inflammation. Once activated, T cells are present in the lung, and their effector functions would include the attraction and enhancement of the inflammatory function in other inflammatory cells like neutrophils and macrophages. It seems likely that, only when all inflammatory cell types (ie, CD4+, CD8+, neutrophils, and macrophages) are present in the lung, the airways remodeling and parenchymal destruction characteristic of COPD will ensue. If T cells are responsible for the lung injury and progression of COPD, it would resemble a response to an antigenic stimulus originating in the lung. If that were the case, COPD could be considered to be an autoimmune disease triggered by smoking.Chest 06/2002; 121(5 Suppl):160S-165S. · 5.85 Impact Factor