Physical sensor difference-based method and virtual sensor difference-based method for visual and quantitative estimation of lower limb 3D gait posture using accelerometers and magnetometers.
ABSTRACT An approach using a physical sensor difference-based algorithm and a virtual sensor difference-based algorithm to visually and quantitatively confirm lower limb posture was proposed. Three accelerometers and two MAG(3)s (inertial sensor module) were used to measure the accelerations and magnetic field data for the calculation of flexion/extension (FE) and abduction/adduction (AA) angles of hip joint and FE, AA and internal/external rotation (IE) angles of knee joint; then, the trajectories of knee and ankle joints were obtained with the joint angles and segment lengths. There was no integration of acceleration or angular velocity for the joint rotations and positions, which is an improvement on the previous method in recent literature. Compared with the camera motion capture system, the correlation coefficients in five trials were above 0.91 and 0.92 for the hip FE and AA, respectively, and higher than 0.94, 0.93 and 0.93 for the knee joint FE, AA and IE, respectively.