Guidelines for the primary prevention of stroke: a guideline for healthcare professionals from the American Heart Association/American Stroke Association.
ABSTRACT This guideline provides an overview of the evidence on established and emerging risk factors for stroke to provide evidence-based recommendations for the reduction of risk of a first stroke.
Writing group members were nominated by the committee chair on the basis of their previous work in relevant topic areas and were approved by the American Heart Association (AHA) Stroke Council Scientific Statement Oversight Committee and the AHA Manuscript Oversight Committee. The writing group used systematic literature reviews (covering the time since the last review was published in 2006 up to April 2009), reference to previously published guidelines, personal files, and expert opinion to summarize existing evidence, indicate gaps in current knowledge, and when appropriate, formulate recommendations using standard AHA criteria (Tables 1 and 2). All members of the writing group had the opportunity to comment on the recommendations and approved the final version of this document. The guideline underwent extensive peer review by the Stroke Council leadership and the AHA scientific statements oversight committees before consideration and approval by the AHA Science Advisory and Coordinating Committee.
Schemes for assessing a person's risk of a first stroke were evaluated. Risk factors or risk markers for a first stroke were classified according to potential for modification (nonmodifiable, modifiable, or potentially modifiable) and strength of evidence (well documented or less well documented). Nonmodifiable risk factors include age, sex, low birth weight, race/ethnicity, and genetic predisposition. Well-documented and modifiable risk factors include hypertension, exposure to cigarette smoke, diabetes, atrial fibrillation and certain other cardiac conditions, dyslipidemia, carotid artery stenosis, sickle cell disease, postmenopausal hormone therapy, poor diet, physical inactivity, and obesity and body fat distribution. Less well-documented or potentially modifiable risk factors include the metabolic syndrome, excessive alcohol consumption, drug abuse, use of oral contraceptives, sleep-disordered breathing, migraine, hyperhomocysteinemia, elevated lipoprotein(a), hypercoagulability, inflammation, and infection. Data on the use of aspirin for primary stroke prevention are reviewed.
Extensive evidence identifies a variety of specific factors that increase the risk of a first stroke and that provide strategies for reducing that risk.
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ABSTRACT: Stroke is the second leading cause of death and the preeminent cause of neurological disability. Attempts to limit brain injury after ischemic stroke with clot-dissolving drugs have met with great success but their use remains limited due to a narrow therapeutic time window and concern over serious side effects. Unfortunately, the neuroprotective strategy failed in clinical trials. A more promising approach is to promote recovery of function in people affected by stroke. Following stroke, there is a heightened critical period of plasticity that appears to be receptive to exogenous interventions (e.g., delivery of growth factors) designed to enhance neuroplasticity processes important for recovery. An emerging concept is that combinational therapies appear much more effective than single interventions in improving stroke recovery. One of the most promising interventions, with clinical feasibility, is enriched rehabilitation, a combination of environmental enrichment and task-specific therapy.Progress in brain research 04/2015; 218:413-34. DOI:10.1016/bs.pbr.2014.12.002 · 5.10 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Ischemic stroke results in diverse pathophysiologies, including cerebral inflammation, neuronal loss, cognitive dysfunction, and depression. Studies aimed at identifying therapeutic solutions to alleviate these outcomes are important due to the increase in the number of stroke patients annually. Recently, many studies have reported that orexin, commonly known as a neuropeptide regulator of sleep/wakefulness and appetite, is associated with neuronal cell apoptosis, memory function, and depressive symptoms. Here, we briefly summarize recent studies regarding the role and future perspectives of orexin in post-ischemic stroke. This review advances our understanding of the role of orexin in post-stroke pathologies, focusing on its possible function as a therapeutic regulator in the post-ischemic brain. Ultimately, we suggest the clinical potential of orexin to regulate post-stroke pathologies.Molecular Brain 03/2015; 8(1). DOI:10.1186/s13041-015-0106-1 · 4.35 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Fall and serious fall injuries have become a major health concern for elders. Many factors including blood pressure and anti-hypertensive medication application were reported as hazards of fall. The purpose of this study was to determine if age related systemic functional decline related with increased fall risks in elderly patients with hypertension. A total of 342 elderly hypertension patients (age 79.5 ± 6.7 years, male 63.8%) were recruited to the study. Comprehensive geriatric assessment (CGA), including measurements about activity of daily living (ADL), nutrition, cognition, depression, numbers of prescription medication and number of clinical diagnosis, was conducted to evaluate the physical and mental status of each participants. Fall risk was evaluated by Morse fall scale, Tinetti performance oriented mobility assessment (POMA) and history of fall in the recent year. Participants were grouped into tertiles according to CGA score. Correlation between CGA and fall risk was analyzed through SPSS 18.0. Participants with higher CGA score were likely to be older, had a lower body mass index (BMI), and a higher prevalence of cardiovascular disease, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), cerebrovascular disease and osteoarthropathia. Participants in higher tertile of CGA score got increased prevalence of fall risk than those in lower tertile (P < 0.01 T3 vs. T1, P < 0.01 T3 vs. T2). Correlation analysis and regression analysis showed significant association between CGA and Morse fall scale (P < 0.001), as well as CGA and POMA (P < 0.001). Meanwhile, CGA components also showed co-relationships with increase fall risks. After adjusting age, BMI, benzodiazepine use, cardiovascular disease, cerebrovascular disease, COPD and osteoarthropathia, both history of fall in the recent year and rising Morse fall scale were significantly associated with ADL impairment (OR: 2.748, 95%CI: 1.598-4.725), (OR: 3.310, 95%CI: 1.893-5.788). Decreased Tinetti POMA score was associated with Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) (OR: 4.035, 95%CI: 2.100-7.751), ADL (OR: 2.380, 95%CI: 1.357-4.175) and shortened MNA form (MNA-SF) impairment (OR: 2.692, 95%CI: 1.147-6.319). In elderly adults with hypertension, impaired physical and mental function is associated with increased fall risk. Further study is required to investigate possible mediators for the association and effective interventions.Journal of Geriatric Cardiology 03/2015; 12(2):113-8. DOI:10.11909/j.issn.1671-5411.2015.02.006 · 1.06 Impact Factor