Article

Dietary sensitivities and ADHD symptoms: Thirty-five years of research

Department of Foods & Nutrition, Purdue University, 700 State Street (G-46), West Lafayette, IN 47907, USA.
Clinical Pediatrics (Impact Factor: 1.26). 12/2010; 50(4):279-93. DOI: 10.1177/0009922810384728
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Artificial food colors (AFCs) have not been established as the main cause of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), but accumulated evidence suggests that a subgroup shows significant symptom improvement when consuming an AFC-free diet and reacts with ADHD-type symptoms on challenge with AFCs. Of children with suspected sensitivities, 65% to 89% reacted when challenged with at least 100 mg of AFC. Oligoantigenic diet studies suggested that some children in addition to being sensitive to AFCs are also sensitive to common nonsalicylate foods (milk, chocolate, soy, eggs, wheat, corn, legumes) as well as salicylate-containing grapes, tomatoes, and orange. Some studies found "cosensitivity" to be more the rule than the exception. Recently, 2 large studies demonstrated behavioral sensitivity to AFCs and benzoate in children both with and without ADHD. A trial elimination diet is appropriate for children who have not responded satisfactorily to conventional treatment or whose parents wish to pursue a dietary investigation.

Download full-text

Full-text

Available from: Laura Jane Stevens, Aug 27, 2015
3 Followers
 · 
190 Views
  • Source
    • "Corn is found in a wide variety of packaged foods, such as cereals, candies, jams, syrups, sauces, snack foods, canned fruits, prepared meats and beverages. Though not considered a common food allergen corn allergy is increasingly being discussed between doctors across the world [1] [2]. Treatment for corn allergy includes strict avoidance of corn ingredients. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: A rapid and accurate detection of corn (Zea mays L.) ingredients in processed foods is important for food safety and quality assurance. This study aimed to develop PCR-based approach for fast screening of the corn in foodstuffs. To this purpose a new PCR-based DNA marker specific to the corn zein gene was developed, three uniplex PCR methods and one triplex PCR system targeting invertase and zein genes were compared. Different corn-derived foodstuffs such as: flour, chips, flakes and snacks were investigated. Analysis of PCR products by agarose gel electrophoresis demonstrated that multiplex PCR method represents the most reliable and rapid tool for identification of corn ingredients in highly processed foods.
    International Journal of Food Sciences and Nutrition 06/2014; 3(3 3):199-202. DOI:10.11648/j.ijnfs.20140303.21 · 1.20 Impact Factor
  • Source
    • "This ques‑ tion, in fact, is the theme of many reports in environmental health. The more significant paradox about the passage above by the FDA Food Advisory Committee (2011b) is its view that an effect size of 0.18 [in the range of many of the pub‑ lished studies (see Schab and Trinh 2004; Stevens et al. 2011)] can be considered trivial. Effect size is often used to gauge the impor‑ tance or strength of a finding; therefore, how it applies to McCann et al. (2007)—and its interpretation—is worth examining with a more familiar example. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The proposition that synthetic food colors can induce adverse behavioral effects in children was first enunciated in 1975 by Feingold [Why Your Child Is Hyperactive. New York:Random House (1975)], who asserted that elevated sensitivity to food additives underlies the signs of hyperactivity observed in some children. Although the evidence suggested that some unknown proportion of children did respond to synthetic food colors, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) interpreted the evidence as inconclusive. A study published in 2007 [McCann et al. Food additives and hyperactive behaviour in 3-year-old and 8/9-year-old children in the community: a randomised, double-blinded, placebo-controlled trial. Lancet 370:1560-1567 (2007)] drew renewed attention to the hypothesis because of the study's size and scope. It led the FDA to review the evidence, hold a public hearing, and seek the advice of its Food Advisory Committee. In preparation for the hearing, the FDA reviewed the available evidence and concluded that it did not warrant further agency action. In this commentary I examine the basis of the FDA's position, the elements of the review that led to its decision and that of the Food Advisory Committee, and the reasons that this is an environmental health issue. The FDA review confined itself, in essence, to the clinical diagnosis of hyperactivity, as did the charge to the committee, rather than asking the broader environmental question of behavioral effects in the general population; it failed to recognize the significance of vulnerable subpopulations; and it misinterpreted the meaning of effect size as a criterion of risk. The FDA's response would have benefited from adopting the viewpoints and perspectives common to environmental health research. At the same time, the food color debate offers a lesson to environmental health researchers; namely, too narrow a focus on a single outcome or criterion can be misleading.
    Environmental Health Perspectives 09/2011; 120(1):1-5. DOI:10.1289/ehp.1103827 · 7.98 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Our understanding of the vast collection of microbes that live on and inside us (microbiota) and their collective genes (microbiome) has been revolutionized by culture-independent "metagenomic" techniques and DNA sequencing technologies. Most of our microbes live in our gut, where they function as a metabolic organ and provide attributes not encoded in our human genome. Metagenomic studies are revealing shared and distinctive features of microbial communities inhabiting different humans. A central question in psychiatry is the relative role of genes and environment in shaping behavior. The human microbiome serves as the interface between our genes and our history of environmental exposures; explorations of our microbiomes thus offer the possibility of providing new insights into our neurodevelopment and our behavioral phenotypes by affecting complex processes such as inter- and intra personal variations in cognition, personality, mood, sleep, and eating behavior, and perhaps even a variety of neuropsychiatric diseases ranging from affective disorders to autism. Better understanding of microbiome-encoded pathways for xenobiotic metabolism also has important implications for improving the efficacy of pharmacologic interventions with neuromodulatory agents.
    Dialogues in clinical neuroscience 03/2011; 13(1):55-62.
Show more