Splice Variants of the Dual Specificity Tyrosine Phosphorylation-regulated Kinase 4 (DYRK4) Differ in Their Subcellular Localization and Catalytic Activity
ABSTRACT Dual specificity tyrosine phosphorylation-regulated kinases, DYRKs, are a family of conserved protein kinases that play key roles in the regulation of cell differentiation, proliferation, and survival. Of the five mammalian DYRKs, DYRK4 is the least studied family member. Here, we show that several splice variants of DYRK4 are expressed in tissue-specific patterns and that these variants have distinct functional capacities. One of these variants contains a nuclear localization signal in its extended N terminus that mediates its interaction with importin α3 and α5 and that is capable of targeting a heterologous protein to the nucleus. Consequently, the nucleocytoplasmic mobility of this variant differs from that of a shorter isoform in live cell imaging experiments. Other splicing events affect the catalytic domain, including a three-amino acid deletion within subdomain XI that markedly reduces the enzymatic activity of DYRK4. We also show that autophosphorylation of a tyrosine residue within the activation loop is necessary for full DYRK4 kinase activity, a defining feature of the DYRK family. Finally, by comparing the phosphorylation of an array of 720 peptides, we show that DYRK1A, DYRK2, and DYRK4 differ in their target recognition sequence and that preference for an arginine residue at position P -3 is a feature of DYRK1A but not of DYRK2 and DYRK4. Therefore, we highlight the use of subcellular localization as an important regulatory mechanism for DYRK proteins, and we propose that substrate specificity could be a source of functional diversity among DYRKs.
- SourceAvailable from: Jean M Delabar
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- "Kinase activity of DYRK1A protein was determined from hippocampus (6 mice per group) according to previously published protocol  "
ABSTRACT: Trisomy for human chromosome 21 results in Down syndrome (DS), which is among the most complex genetic perturbations leading to intellectual disability. Accumulating data suggest that overexpression of the dual-specificity tyrosine-(Y)-phosphorylation regulated kinase 1A (DYRK1A), is a critical pathogenic mechanisms in the intellectual deficit. Here we show that the green tea flavonol epigallocatechin-gallate (EGCG), a DYRK1A inhibitor, rescues the cognitive deficits of both segmental trisomy 16 (Ts65Dn) and transgenic mice overexpressing Dyrk1A in a trisomic or disomic genetic background, respectively. It also significantly reverses cognitive deficits in a pilot study in DS individuals with effects on memory recognition, working memory and quality of life. We used the mouse models to ensure that EGCG was able to reduce DYRK1A kinase activity in the hippocampus and found that it also induced significant changes in plasma homocysteine levels, which were correlated with Dyrk1A expression levels. Thus, we could use plasma homocysteine levels as an efficacy biomarker in our human study. We conclude that EGCG is a promising therapeutic tool for cognitive enhancement in DS, and its efficacy may depend of Dyrk1A inhibition.Molecular Nutrition & Food Research 02/2014; 58(2). DOI:10.1002/mnfr.201300325 · 4.60 Impact Factor
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- "The beads were washed twice with immunoprecipitation buffer, once with immunoprecipitation buffer without protease inhibitors and detergent and once with kinase buffer (25 mM Hepes pH 7.5, 0.5 mM MgCl2, 0.5 mM dithiothreitol). The kinase assays were performed with the biotinylated peptide SAPtide (Bio-RRARKLTATPTPLGG) as described previously . In brief, immunocomplexes were incubated for 30 min at 30°C in 20 µl of kinase buffer, at a final concentration of 10 µm ATP and (γ-32P)ATP (100–150 mCi/pmol) and with 100 µm of the peptide. "
ABSTRACT: Plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 (PAI-1) is a key regulator of the plasminogen activation system. Although several lines of evidence support a significant role of PAI-1 in the brain, the regulation of its expression in neurons is poorly understood. In the present study we tested the hypothesis that NGF induces the upregulation of PAI-1 via the calcineurin/nuclear factor of activated T cells (NFAT) pathway and analysed whether the overexpression of the Down syndrome-related proteins DYRK1A and RCAN1 modulated the effect of NGF on PAI-1 expression. NGF upregulated PAI-1 mRNA levels in primary mouse hippocampal neurons cultured for 3 days in vitro and in the rat pheochromocytoma cell line PC12. Reporter gene assays revealed that NGF activated the calcineurin/NFAT pathway in PC12 cells. Induction of PAI-1 by NGF was sensitive to the calcineurin inhibitor FK506 and the specific inhibition of NFAT activation by the cell permeable VIVIT peptide. Activation of calcineurin/NFAT signalling through other stimuli resulted in a much weaker induction of PAI-1 expression, suggesting that other NGF-induced pathways are involved in PAI-1 upregulation. Overexpression of either DYRK1A or RCAN1 negatively regulated NFAT-dependent transcriptional activity and reduced the upregulation of PAI-1 levels by NGF. The present results show that the calcineurin/NFAT pathway mediates the upregulation of PAI-1 by NGF. The negative effect of DYRK1A and RCAN1 overexpression on NGF signal transduction in neural cells may contribute to the altered neurodevelopment and brain function in Down syndrome.PLoS ONE 06/2013; 8(6):e67470. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0067470 · 3.23 Impact Factor
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- "DYRKs (dual-specificity tyrosine phosphorylation-regulated kinases) and glycogen synthase kinase 3s (GSK3s) are dual-specificity kinases that autophosphorylate a critical tyrosine residue in the activation loop region of the kinase domain during maturation of the molecule –. Once the residue is phosphorylated, DYRKs and GSK3s lose their tyrosine kinase activity and function only as serine/threonine kinases –. These dual-specificity kinases face the dilemma of temporarily converting what is essentially a serine/threonine kinase into a tyrosine kinase. "
ABSTRACT: DYRK-family kinases employ an intramolecular mechanism to autophosphorylate a critical tyrosine residue in the activation loop. Once phosphorylated, DYRKs lose tyrosine kinase activity and function as serine/threonine kinases. DYRKs have been characterized in organisms from yeast to human; however, all entities belong to the Unikont supergroup, only one of five eukaryotic supergroups. To assess the evolutionary age and conservation of the DYRK intramolecular kinase-activation mechanism, we surveyed 21 genomes representing four of the five eukaryotic supergroups for the presence of DYRKs. We also analyzed the activation mechanism of the sole DYRK (class 2 DYRK) present in Trypanosoma brucei (TbDYRK2), a member of the excavate supergroup and separated from Drosophila by ∼850 million years. Bioinformatics showed the DYRKs clustering into five known subfamilies, class 1, class 2, Yaks, HIPKs and Prp4s. Only class 2 DYRKs were present in all four supergroups. These diverse class 2 DYRKs also exhibited conservation of N-terminal NAPA regions located outside of the kinase domain, and were shown to have an essential role in activation loop autophosphorylation of Drosophila DmDYRK2. Class 2 TbDYRK2 required the activation loop tyrosine conserved in other DYRKs, the NAPA regions were critical for this autophosphorylation event, and the NAPA-regions of Trypanosoma and human DYRK2 complemented autophosphorylation by the kinase domain of DmDYRK2 in trans. Finally, sequential deletion analysis was used to further define the minimal region required for trans-complementation. Our analysis provides strong evidence that class 2 DYRKs were present in the primordial or root eukaryote, and suggest this subgroup may be the oldest, founding member of the DYRK family. The conservation of activation loop autophosphorylation demonstrates that kinase self-activation mechanisms are also primitive.PLoS ONE 01/2012; 7(1):e29702. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0029702 · 3.23 Impact Factor