Splice Variants of the Dual Specificity Tyrosine Phosphorylation-regulated Kinase 4 (DYRK4) Differ in Their Subcellular Localization and Catalytic Activity
ABSTRACT Dual specificity tyrosine phosphorylation-regulated kinases, DYRKs, are a family of conserved protein kinases that play key roles in the regulation of cell differentiation, proliferation, and survival. Of the five mammalian DYRKs, DYRK4 is the least studied family member. Here, we show that several splice variants of DYRK4 are expressed in tissue-specific patterns and that these variants have distinct functional capacities. One of these variants contains a nuclear localization signal in its extended N terminus that mediates its interaction with importin α3 and α5 and that is capable of targeting a heterologous protein to the nucleus. Consequently, the nucleocytoplasmic mobility of this variant differs from that of a shorter isoform in live cell imaging experiments. Other splicing events affect the catalytic domain, including a three-amino acid deletion within subdomain XI that markedly reduces the enzymatic activity of DYRK4. We also show that autophosphorylation of a tyrosine residue within the activation loop is necessary for full DYRK4 kinase activity, a defining feature of the DYRK family. Finally, by comparing the phosphorylation of an array of 720 peptides, we show that DYRK1A, DYRK2, and DYRK4 differ in their target recognition sequence and that preference for an arginine residue at position P -3 is a feature of DYRK1A but not of DYRK2 and DYRK4. Therefore, we highlight the use of subcellular localization as an important regulatory mechanism for DYRK proteins, and we propose that substrate specificity could be a source of functional diversity among DYRKs.
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ABSTRACT: Background Homeodomain interacting protein kinases (HIPKs) function as modulators of cellular stress responses and regulate cell differentiation, proliferation and apoptosis. The HIPK family includes HIPK1, HIPK2 and HIPK3, which share a similar domain structure, and the more distantly related HIPK4. Although HIPKs phosphorylate their substrates on serine or threonine residues, it was recently reported that HIPK2 depends on the autophosphorylation of a conserved tyrosine in the activation loop to acquire full catalytic activity and correct subcellular localization. In this study we addressed the question whether tyrosine autophosphorylation in the activation loop has a similar function in the other members of the HIPK family.ResultsAll HIPKs contained phosphotyrosine when expressed in HeLa cells. Catalytically inactive point mutants were not tyrosine-phosphorylated, indicating that HIPKs are dual-specificity protein kinases that autophosphorylate on tyrosine residues. HIPK point mutants lacking the conserved tyrosine residue in the activation loop showed reduced catalytic activity towards peptide and protein substrates. Analysis of these mutants revealed that HIPK1, HIPK2 and HIPK3 but not HIPK4 are capable of autophosphorylating on other tyrosines. Inhibition of tyrosine phosphatase activity by treatment with vanadate enhanced global phosphotyrosine content of HIPK1, HIPK2 and HIPK3 but did not affect tyrosine phosphorylation in the activation loop. Mutation of the activation-loop tyrosines resulted in a redistribution of HIPK1 and HIPK2 from a speckle-like subnuclear compartment to the cytoplasm, whereas catalytically inactive point mutants showed the same pattern of cellular distribution as the wild type proteins. In contrast, mutation of the activating tyrosine did not increase the low percentage of cells with extranuclear HIPK3. HIPK4 was excluded from the nucleus with no difference between the wild type kinase and the point mutants.Conclusions These results show that HIPKs share the mechanism of activation by tyrosine autophosphorylation with the closely related DYRK family (dual-specificity tyrosine phosphorylation regulated kinase). However, members of the HIPK family differ regarding the subcellular localization and its dependence on tyrosine autophosphorylation.Cell Communication and Signaling 01/2015; 13(1):3. DOI:10.1186/s12964-014-0082-6 · 4.67 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Trisomy for human chromosome 21 results in Down syndrome (DS), which is among the most complex genetic perturbations leading to intellectual disability. Accumulating data suggest that overexpression of the dual-specificity tyrosine-(Y)-phosphorylation regulated kinase 1A (DYRK1A), is a critical pathogenic mechanisms in the intellectual deficit. Here we show that the green tea flavonol epigallocatechin-gallate (EGCG), a DYRK1A inhibitor, rescues the cognitive deficits of both segmental trisomy 16 (Ts65Dn) and transgenic mice overexpressing Dyrk1A in a trisomic or disomic genetic background, respectively. It also significantly reverses cognitive deficits in a pilot study in DS individuals with effects on memory recognition, working memory and quality of life. We used the mouse models to ensure that EGCG was able to reduce DYRK1A kinase activity in the hippocampus and found that it also induced significant changes in plasma homocysteine levels, which were correlated with Dyrk1A expression levels. Thus, we could use plasma homocysteine levels as an efficacy biomarker in our human study. We conclude that EGCG is a promising therapeutic tool for cognitive enhancement in DS, and its efficacy may depend of Dyrk1A inhibition.Molecular Nutrition & Food Research 02/2014; 58(2). DOI:10.1002/mnfr.201300325 · 4.91 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The human genome encodes seven isoforms of importin α which are grouped into three subfamilies known as α1, α2 and α3. All isoforms share a fundamentally conserved architecture that consists of an N-terminal, autoinhibitory, importin-β-binding (IBB) domain and a C-terminal Arm (Armadillo)-core that associates with nuclear localization signal (NLS) cargoes. Despite striking similarity in amino acid sequence and 3D structure, importin-α isoforms display remarkable substrate specificity in vivo. In the present review, we look at key differences among importin-α isoforms and provide a comprehensive inventory of known viral and cellular cargoes that have been shown to associate preferentially with specific isoforms. We illustrate how the diversification of the adaptor importin α into seven isoforms expands the dynamic range and regulatory control of nucleocytoplasmic transport, offering unexpected opportunities for pharmacological intervention. The emerging view of importin α is that of a key signalling molecule, with isoforms that confer preferential nuclear entry and spatiotemporal specificity on viral and cellular cargoes directly linked to human diseases.Biochemical Journal 02/2015; 466(1):13-28. DOI:10.1042/BJ20141186 · 4.78 Impact Factor