[Epidemiology of tuberculosis: a global, European and Polish perspective].

Zakład Mikrobiologii Instytutu Gruźlicy i Chorób Płuc w Warszawie.
Wiadomości lekarskie (Warsaw, Poland: 1960) 01/2010; 63(3):230-46.
Source: PubMed


Tuberculosis (TB) still remains a significant global health problem. At present, it has been estimated that one-third of the world's population is infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the causative agent of TB. A total of 8-9 million new cases and 2 million deaths are recorded annually, ranking TB as the leading cause of morbidity and mortality from infectious diseases. According to the World Health Organization, by 2015 almost 1 billion people will become newly infected, about 200 million will develop the disease, and 35 million will die of TB, if the current trends continue. A number of factors have contributed to the global TB crisis, among which low case detection rates, the emergence of drug-resistant M. tuberculosis strains, coinfection with HIV, increased influx of immigrants from countries with a high incidence of TB, socioeconomic decline and deterioration of health care services seem to be most crucial. Although TB occurs predominantly in low-income and middle-income countries that account for as much as 95% of all new cases and 98% of all TB deaths, the disease persists in the populations of the developed countries, posing a potential risk for its resurgence. This review provides an update of the epidemiological situation of TB in the world, Europe, and Poland.

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    • "One third of the world's population constituting 2 billion people are infected with Tuberculosis (TB), which is the second most common cause of mortality amongst communicable diseases [1]-[3]. The disease is still of global concern and highly prevalent in poor countries, especially in sub-saharan Africa, and Nigeria has the highest burden in Africa [4]-[6]. With a high incidence of 311 per 100,000 population per year and a prevalence of 616 per 100,000 Nigeria ranks fourth among the 22 TB high burden countries [2]. "
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    ABSTRACT: How to cite this paper: Azuike, E.C., et al. (2014) Characteristics of HIV Co-Infected Patients among Tuberculosis Patients Accessing Care at a DOTS Clinic in South-Eastern Nigeria. Open Access Library Journal, 1: e871. http://dx. Abstract Background: One third of the world's population constituting 2 billion people are infected with Tuberculosis (TB), which is the second most common cause of mortality amongst communicable diseases. Nigeria ranks fourth among 22 high TB burden countries. One of the major challenges to the control of TB is the presence and interaction of TB with HIV. In many parts of Africa, infection with HIV has further increased TB morbidity and mortality. To effectively control TB in Africa the co-infection with HIV must be perfectly understood and adequate measures and strategies devel-oped and implemented. Methods: This was a cross sectional descriptive study, carried out be-tween January 2012 and April 2014 at the DOTS clinic of a tertiary hospital in South-Eastern Nige-ria. Three hundred and eighty-four tuberculosis patients were interviewed using a structured questionnaire and data on their HIV status and other characteristics were collected. Data were analysed using SPSS Version 20. Results: Three hundred and eighty-four tuberculosis patients participated in the study. Eighty-six patients (22.4%) were HIV seropositive. There were 182 males (47.4%) and 202 females (52.6%). The commonest age group was the group 20 -39 years (51.6%). HIV seropositivity was highest among the age group 20 -39 years and this was statisti-cally significant (X 2 = 11.14, p = 0.01). The married patients had the highest proportion of HIV seropositivity and this was statistically significant (X 2 = 40.76, p = 0.00). The unemployed patients had the highest proportion of HIV seropositivity and it was statistically significant (X 2 = 35.14, p = 0.00). Conclusion: Some basic characteristics of tuberculosis patients predispose them to HIV/TB | Volume 1 | e871 co-infection. The characteristics must be explored further and be factored in the strategies to con-trol tuberculosis in Africa.
    OALib Journal 01/2014; 1(e871). DOI:10.4236/oalib.1100871
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    • "tuberculosis), still remains a public health problem worldwide. It has been estimated that more than two billion people are latently infected with M. tuberculosis and a total of around eight million new cases [1], [2] and 1.6 million deaths occurred in 2010 as reported by the WHO [3]. The emergence of multidrug resistant strains of M. tuberculosis [4] as well as the existence of extensively drug resistant TB in more than 40 countries [5] and the global spread of HIV are among the factors underlying the resurgence of TB research [6]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Thymidine biosynthesis is essential in all cells. Inhibitors of the enzymes involved in this pathway (e.g. methotrexate) are thus frequently used as cytostatics. Due to its pivotal role in mycobacterial thymidylate synthesis dUTPase, which hydrolyzes dUTP into the dTTP precursor dUMP, has been suggested as a target for new antitubercular agents. All mycobacterial genomes encode dUTPase with a mycobacteria-specific surface loop absent in the human dUTPase. Using Mycobacterium smegmatis as a fast growing model for Mycobacterium tuberculosis, we demonstrate that dUTPase knock-out results in lethality that can be reverted by complementation with wild-type dUTPase. Interestingly, a mutant dUTPase gene lacking the genus-specific loop was unable to complement the knock-out phenotype. We also show that deletion of the mycobacteria-specific loop has no major effect on dUTPase enzymatic properties in vitro and thus a yet to be identified loop-specific function seems to be essential within the bacterial cell context. In addition, here we demonstrated that Mycobacterium tuberculosis dUTPase is fully functional in Mycobacterium smegmatis as it rescues the lethal knock-out phenotype. Our results indicate the potential of dUTPase as a target for antitubercular drugs and identify a genus-specific surface loop on the enzyme as a selective target.
    PLoS ONE 05/2012; 7(5):e37461. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0037461 · 3.23 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in the materials collected from the patients is the most objective evidence of an existing disease process. Microbiological methods are used to determine the optimal therapy and monitoring of the patient's treatment. Microbiological diagnosis of tuberculosis is very specific in its character, and varies from typical microbiological diagnosis. Obtaining a correct result depends on a number of factors including pre-laboratory errors as well as unwitting laboratory errors. This is due to objective problems coming from sensitivity and specificity of the methods, specificity of clinical specimens which are diagnose and efficiency of technical equipment of a particular laboratory. Some of the errors we are able to limit, some are not. Constant changes connected with equipment and new methodology which is modern and more adaptable to actual necessities can be observed. Close cooperation the clinicians and laboratory is essential for high quality management of tuberculosis patients.
    Reumatologia 01/2013; 6(6):445-451. DOI:10.5114/reum.2013.39664
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