Article

Reproducibility study of [F-18]FPP(RGD)(2) uptake in murine models of human tumor xenografts

Molecular Imaging Program at Stanford, Department of Radiology, School of Medicine, Stanford University, 1201 Welch Road, Lucas Center, P020A, Stanford, CA 94305-5484, USA.
European Journal of Nuclear Medicine (Impact Factor: 5.22). 12/2010; 38(4):722-30. DOI: 10.1007/s00259-010-1672-1
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT An (18)F-labeled PEGylated arginine-glycine-aspartic acid (RGD) dimer {[(18)F]FPP(RGD)(2)} has been used to image tumor α(v)β(3) integrin levels in preclinical and clinical studies. Serial positron emission tomography (PET) studies may be useful for monitoring antiangiogenic therapy response or for drug screening; however, the reproducibility of serial scans has not been determined for this PET probe. The purpose of this study was to determine the reproducibility of the integrin α(v)β(3)-targeted PET probe, [(18)F]FPP(RGD)(2,) using small animal PET.
Human HCT116 colon cancer xenografts were implanted into nude mice (n = 12) in the breast and scapular region and grown to mean diameters of 5-15 mm for approximately 2.5 weeks. A 3-min acquisition was performed on a small animal PET scanner approximately 1 h after administration of [(18)F]FPP(RGD)(2) (1.9-3.8 MBq, 50-100 μCi) via the tail vein. A second small animal PET scan was performed approximately 6 h later after reinjection of the probe to assess for reproducibility. Images were analyzed by drawing an ellipsoidal region of interest (ROI) around the tumor xenograft activity. Percentage injected dose per gram (%ID/g) values were calculated from the mean or maximum activity in the ROIs. Coefficients of variation and differences in %ID/g values between studies from the same day were calculated to determine the reproducibility.
The coefficient of variation (mean±SD) for %ID(mean)/g and %ID(max)/g values between [(18)F]FPP(RGD)(2) small animal PET scans performed 6 h apart on the same day were 11.1 ± 7.6% and 10.4 ± 9.3%, respectively. The corresponding differences in %ID(mean)/g and %ID(max)/g values between scans were -0.025 ± 0.067 and -0.039 ± 0.426. Immunofluorescence studies revealed a direct relationship between extent of α(ν)β(3) integrin expression in tumors and tumor vasculature with level of tracer uptake. Mouse body weight, injected dose, and fasting state did not contribute to the variability of the scans; however, consistent scanning parameters were necessary to ensure accurate studies, in particular, noting tumor volume, as well as making uniform: the time of imaging after injection and the ROI size. Reanalysis of ROI placement displayed variability for %ID(mean)/g of 6.6 ± 3.9% and 0.28 ± 0.12% for %ID(max)/g.
[(18)F]FPP(RGD)(2) small animal PET mouse tumor xenograft studies are reproducible with relatively low variability.

0 Followers
 · 
165 Views
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: We evaluated noninvasive positron emission tomography (PET) imaging for monitoring tumor response to the VEGFR-2 tyrosine kinase (TK) inhibitor ZD4190 during cancer therapy. Orthotopic MDA-MB-435 tumor-bearing mice were treated with ZD4190 (100 mg/kg orally per day for three consecutive days). Tumor growth was monitored by caliper measurement. During the therapeutic period, longitudinal PET scans were acquired using (18)F-FDG, (18)F-FLT and (18)F-FPPRGD2 as imaging tracers to evaluate tumor glucose metabolism, tumor cell proliferation, and angiogenesis, respectively. Imaging metrics were validated by immunohistochemical analysis of Ki67, GLUT-1, F4/80, CD31, murine integrin β3, and human integrin αvβ3. Three consecutive daily oral administrations of 100 mg/kg of ZD4190 were effective in delaying MDA-MB-435 tumor growth. A significant difference in tumor volume was observed on day 7 between the treatment group and the control group (p < 0.01). After the final treatment, tumor growth resumed after a short delay. In the control tumors, (18)F-FPPRGD2 uptake was stable between days 0 and 7. In ZD4190-treated tumors, (18)F-FPPRGD2 uptake had decreased significantly relative to baseline by 26.74 ± 8.12% (p < 0.05) on day 1 and by 41.19 ± 6.63% (p < 0.01) on day 3, then had returned to baseline on day 7. Tumor uptake of (18)F-FLT had also decreased on both day 1 and day 3 after initiation of ZD4190 treatment. No significant change in (18)F-FDG uptake in ZD4190-treated tumors was observed, however, compared with the control group. All of the imaging findings were supported by ex vivo analysis of related biomarkers. The longitudinal imaging results demonstrated the usefulness of quantitative (18)F-FLT and (18)F-FPPRGD2 PET imaging in evaluating the early antiproliferative and antiangiogenic effects of ZD4190. The quantification data from the PET imaging were consistent with the pattern of initial growth inhibition with treatment, followed by tumor relapse after treatment cessation.
    European Journal of Nuclear Medicine 03/2011; 38(7):1237-47. DOI:10.1007/s00259-011-1742-z · 5.22 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Agouti-related protein (AgRP) is a 4-kDa cystine-knot peptide of human origin with four disulfide bonds and four solvent-exposed loops. The cell adhesion receptor integrin α(v)β(3) is an important tumor angiogenesis factor that determines the invasiveness and metastatic ability of many malignant tumors. AgRP mutants have been engineered to bind to integrin α(v)β(3) with high affinity and specificity using directed evolution. Here, AgRP mutants 7C and 6E were radiolabeled with (111)In and evaluated for in vivo targeting of tumor integrin α(v)β(3) receptors. AgRP peptides were conjugated to the metal chelator 1, 4, 7, 10-tetra-azacyclododecane- N, N', N″, N'''-tetraacetic acid (DOTA) and radiolabeled with (111)In. The stability of the radiopeptides (111)In-DOTA-AgRP-7C and (111)In-DOTA-AgRP-6E was tested in phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) and mouse serum, respectively. Cell uptake assays of the radiolabeled peptides were performed in U87MG cell lines. Biodistribution studies were performed to evaluate the in vivo performance of the two resulting probes using mice bearing integrin-expressing U87MG xenograft tumors. Both AgRP peptides were easily labeled with (111)In in high yield and radiochemical purity (>99%). The two probes exhibited high stability in phosphate-buffered saline and mouse serum. Compared with (111)In-DOTA-AgRP-6E, (111)In-DOTA-AgRP-7C showed increased U87MG tumor uptake and longer tumor retention (5.74 ± 1.60 and 1.29 ± 0.02%ID/g at 0.5 and 24 h, resp.), which was consistent with measurements of cell uptake. Moreover, the tumor uptake of (111)In-DOTA-AgRP-7C was specifically inhibited by coinjection with an excess of the integrin-binding peptidomimetic c(RGDyK). Thus, (111)In-DOTA-AgRP-7C is a promising probe for targeting integrin α(v)β(3) positive tumors in living subjects.
    BioMed Research International 04/2012; 2012:368075. DOI:10.1155/2012/368075 · 2.71 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Imaging techniques targeting tumor angiogenesis have been investigated for past decade. Of these, the radiolabeled Arg-Gly- Asp (RGD) peptide has been focused because it has high affinity and selectivity for integrin alpha(v)beta3. Integrin alpha(v)beta3 is expressed on the plasma membrane in an active status in which it binds its ligands and transduce signals when exposed activating external stimuli of tumor angiogenesis such as vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). Many linear or cyclic RGD peptides were developed for positron emission tomography (PET). In this review, we focused on currently developed RGD peptides as PET probes for non-invasive detection of integrin alpha(v)beta3 expression.
    Current Medicinal Chemistry 05/2012; 19(20):3301-9. DOI:10.2174/092986712801215937 · 3.72 Impact Factor