Article

Caribbean Corals in Crisis: Record Thermal Stress, Bleaching, and Mortality in 2005

Coral Reef Watch, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Silver Spring, Maryland, USA.
PLoS ONE (Impact Factor: 3.53). 11/2010; 5(11):e13969. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0013969
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT The rising temperature of the world's oceans has become a major threat to coral reefs globally as the severity and frequency of mass coral bleaching and mortality events increase. In 2005, high ocean temperatures in the tropical Atlantic and Caribbean resulted in the most severe bleaching event ever recorded in the basin.
Satellite-based tools provided warnings for coral reef managers and scientists, guiding both the timing and location of researchers' field observations as anomalously warm conditions developed and spread across the greater Caribbean region from June to October 2005. Field surveys of bleaching and mortality exceeded prior efforts in detail and extent, and provided a new standard for documenting the effects of bleaching and for testing nowcast and forecast products. Collaborators from 22 countries undertook the most comprehensive documentation of basin-scale bleaching to date and found that over 80% of corals bleached and over 40% died at many sites. The most severe bleaching coincided with waters nearest a western Atlantic warm pool that was centered off the northern end of the Lesser Antilles.
Thermal stress during the 2005 event exceeded any observed from the Caribbean in the prior 20 years, and regionally-averaged temperatures were the warmest in over 150 years. Comparison of satellite data against field surveys demonstrated a significant predictive relationship between accumulated heat stress (measured using NOAA Coral Reef Watch's Degree Heating Weeks) and bleaching intensity. This severe, widespread bleaching and mortality will undoubtedly have long-term consequences for reef ecosystems and suggests a troubled future for tropical marine ecosystems under a warming climate.

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    • "Anomalously warm water temperatures have been observed to be one of the major causes of mass coral bleaching worldwide (Munday et al., 2009; Eakin et al., 2010). Critical water temperatures (30–31 • C), duration extent (hours, days, or weeks) and event intensity (Berkelmans and Willis, 1999; Craig et al., 2001; Vargas-Angel et al., 2001; Berkelmans, 2002; Sammarco et al., 2006) are all known to affect coral bleaching (Berkelmans and Willis, 1999; Reaser et al., 2000; Eakin et al., 2010; Bastidas et al., 2012). Coral often dies after having been partially or totally bleached for long periods (Crabbe, 2008). "
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