A tale of tailless.

Department of Physiology and Biophysics, UMDNJ-Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, Piscataway, N.J., USA.
Developmental Neuroscience (Impact Factor: 2.45). 12/2010; 33(1):1-13. DOI: 10.1159/000321585
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Drosophila Tailless(Tll) and its vertebrate homologue Tlx are conserved orphan nuclear receptors specifically expressed in the eye and the forebrain. Tll and Tlx act primarily as transcriptional repressors through their interactions with transcriptional corepressors, Atrophin family proteins, and histone-tail/chromatin-modifying factors such as lysine-specific histone demethylase 1 and histone deacetylases. The functional importance of Tll and Tlx is made apparent by the recent discovery that they are expressed in neural stem cells (NSCs) and are required for self-renewal of these cells in both Drosophila and the mouse. This review provides a snapshot of current knowledge about Tll and Tlx and their transcriptional network, which maintains NSCs in developing and adult animals.

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    ABSTRACT: The nuclear receptor NR2E1 (also known as TLX or tailless) controls the self-renewal of neural stem cells (NSCs) and has been implied as an oncogene which initiates brain tumors including glioblastomas. Despite NR2E1 regulating targets like p21(CIP1) or PTEN we still lack a full explanation for its role in NSC self-renewal and tumorigenesis. We know that polycomb repressive complexes also control stem cell self-renewal and tumorigenesis, but so far, no formal connection has been established between NR2E1 and PRCs. In a screen for transcription factors regulating the expression of the polycomb protein CBX7, we identified NR2E1 as one of its more prominent regulators. NR2E1 binds at the CBX7 promoter, inducing its expression. Notably CBX7 represses NR2E1 as part of a regulatory loop. Ectopic NR2E1 expression inhibits cellular senescence, extending cellular lifespan in fibroblasts via CBX7-mediated regulation of p16(INK4a) and direct repression of p21(CIP1). In addition NR2E1 expression also counteracts oncogene-induced senescence. The importance of NR2E1 to restrain senescence is highlighted through the process of knocking down its expression, which causes premature senescence in human fibroblasts and epithelial cells. We also confirmed that NR2E1 regulates CBX7 and restrains senescence in NSCs. Finally, we observed that the expression of NR2E1 directly correlates with that of CBX7 in human glioblastoma multiforme. Overall we identified control of senescence and regulation of polycomb action as two possible mechanisms that can join those so far invoked to explain the role of NR2E1 in control of NSC self-renewal and cancer.Oncogene advance online publication, 20 October 2014; doi:10.1038/onc.2014.335.
    Oncogene 10/2014; DOI:10.1038/onc.2014.335 · 8.56 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The development of complex multicellular organisms is dependent on regulatory decisions that are necessary for the establishment of specific differentiation and metabolic cellular states. Nuclear receptors (NRs) form a large family of transcription factors that play critical roles in the regulation of development and metabolism of Metazoa. Based on their DNA binding and ligand binding domains, NRs are divided into eight NR subfamilies from which representatives of six subfamilies are present in both deuterostomes and protostomes indicating their early evolutionary origin. In some nematode species, especially in Caenorhabditis, the family of NRs expanded to a large number of genes strikingly exceeding the number of NR genes in vertebrates or insects. Nematode NRs, including the multiplied Caenorhabditis genes, show clear relation to vertebrate and insect homologues belonging to six of the eight main NR subfamilies. This review summarizes advances in research of nematode NRs and their developmental functions. Nematode NRs can reveal evolutionarily conserved mechanisms that regulate specific developmental and metabolic processes as well as new regulatory adaptations. They represent the results of a large number of natural experiments with structural and functional potential of NRs for the evolution of the phylum. The conserved and divergent character of nematode NRs adds a new dimension to our understanding of the general biology of regulation by NRs. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Nuclear receptors in animal development.
    Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) - Gene Regulatory Mechanisms 06/2014; 1849(2). DOI:10.1016/j.bbagrm.2014.06.016 · 5.44 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The orphan nuclear receptor TLX regulates neural stem cell self-renewal in the adult brain and functions primarily as a transcription repressor through recruitment of Atrophin corepressors, which bind to TLX via a conserved peptide motif termed the Atro box. Here we report crystal structures of the human and insect TLX ligand-binding domain in complex with Atro box peptides. In these structures, TLX adopts an autorepressed conformation in which its helix H12 occupies the coactivator-binding groove. Unexpectedly, H12 in this autorepressed conformation forms a novel binding pocket with residues from helix H3 that accommodates a short helix formed by the conserved ALXXLXXY motif of the Atro box. Mutations that weaken the TLX-Atrophin interaction compromise the repressive activity of TLX, demonstrating that this interaction is required for Atrophin to confer repressor activity to TLX. Moreover, the autorepressed conformation is conserved in the repressor class of orphan nuclear receptors, and mutations of corresponding residues in other members of this class of receptors diminish their repressor activities. Together, our results establish the functional conservation of the autorepressed conformation and define a key sequence motif in the Atro box that is essential for TLX-mediated repression. © 2015 Zhi et al.; Published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press.
    Genes & Development 02/2015; 29(4):440-50. DOI:10.1101/gad.254904.114 · 12.64 Impact Factor


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