Telomere replication: poised but puzzling. J Cell Mol Med

WWAMI Medical Education Program, Washington State University, Spokane, WA 99210-1495, USA.
Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine (Impact Factor: 4.01). 01/2011; 15(1):3-13. DOI: 10.1111/j.1582-4934.2010.01220.x
Source: PubMed


Faithful replication of chromosomes is essential for maintaining genome stability. Telomeres, the chromosomal termini, pose quite a challenge to replication machinery due to the complexity in their structures and sequences. Efficient and complete replication of chromosomes is critical to prevent aberrant telomeres as well as to avoid unnecessary loss of telomere DNA. Compelling evidence supports the emerging picture of synergistic actions between DNA replication proteins and telomere protective components in telomere synthesis. This review discusses the actions of various replication and telomere-specific binding proteins that ensure accurate telomere replication and their roles in telomere maintenance and protection.

Download full-text


Available from: Weihang Chai,
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The proper maintenance of telomeres is essential for genome stability. Mammalian telomere maintenance is governed by a number of telomere binding proteins, including the newly identified CTC1-STN1-TEN1 (CST) complex. However, the in vivo functions of mammalian CST remain unclear. To address this question, we conditionally deleted CTC1 from mice. We report here that CTC1 null mice experience rapid onset of global cellular proliferative defects and die prematurely from complete bone marrow failure due to the activation of an ATR-dependent G2/M checkpoint. Acute deletion of CTC1 does not result in telomere deprotection, suggesting that mammalian CST is not involved in capping telomeres. Rather, CTC1 facilitates telomere replication by promoting efficient restart of stalled replication forks. CTC1 deletion results in increased loss of leading C-strand telomeres, catastrophic telomere loss and accumulation of excessive ss telomere DNA. Our data demonstrate an essential role for CTC1 in promoting efficient replication and length maintenance of telomeres.
    The EMBO Journal 04/2012; 31(10):2309-21. DOI:10.1038/emboj.2012.96 · 10.43 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Non-canonical four-stranded structures called G-quadruplexes can form among telomere repeats during its replication. Small molecule ligands able to interact and to stabilize G-quadruplexes were shown to disrupt the binding of essential telomeric components, such as POT1 and to trigger a telomeric dysfunction associated with a delayed growth arrest in tumor cells. We describe here the chemical synthesis and the G-quadruplex binding properties of three halogenated analogs of the 360A ligand that belongs to the 2,6 pyridine dicarboxamide series. 360A is now commonly used as a benchmark both for biophysical and cellular assays as this compound was shown to display a potent affinity and selectivity for telomeric G-quadruplex DNA over duplex DNA and to induce delayed growth inhibition in HT1080 tumor cell line. Two biophysical assays indicate that, in most cases, the presence of the halogen atom seems to slightly improve the interaction with the telomeric quadruplex. For stability reasons, the bromo derivative (360A-Br) was selected for the cellular assays. Since POT1 participates to the fine tuning of the C-strand end resection during telomere replication, we investigated the effect of 360A-Br to alter the terminal nucleotide composition of XpYp telomere in HT1080 cells using C-STELA. HT1080 cells treated for up to 24 days with 360A-Br presented some minor but significant variations of C-strand terminal nucleotide composition, also observed with a partial siRNA depletion of POT1. The relevance of these minor modifications of the telomeric C-strand resection induced by 360A-Br in HT1080 cells are discussed.
    Biochimie 07/2012; 94(12). DOI:10.1016/j.biochi.2012.07.003 · 2.96 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Telomere maintenance is critical for genome stability. The newly-identified Ctc1/Stn1/Ten1 complex is important for telomere maintenance, though its precise role is unclear. We report here that depletion of hStn1 induces catastrophic telomere shortening, DNA damage response, and early senescence in human somatic cells. These phenotypes are likely due to the essential role of hStn1 in promoting efficient replication of lagging-strand telomeric DNA. Downregulation of hStn1 accumulates single-stranded G-rich DNA specifically at lagging-strand telomeres, increases telomere fragility, hinders telomere DNA synthesis, as well as delays and compromises telomeric C-strand synthesis. We further show that hStn1 deficiency leads to persistent and elevated association of DNA polymerase α (polα) to telomeres, suggesting that hStn1 may modulate the DNA synthesis activity of polα rather than controlling the loading of polα to telomeres. Additionally, our data suggest that hStn1 is unlikely to be part of the telomere capping complex. We propose that the hStn1 assists DNA polymerases to efficiently duplicate lagging-strand telomeres in order to achieve complete synthesis of telomeric DNA, therefore preventing rapid telomere loss.Cell Research advance online publication 11 September 2012; doi:10.1038/cr.2012.132.
    Cell Research 09/2012; 22(12). DOI:10.1038/cr.2012.132 · 12.41 Impact Factor
Show more