Successful weight loss and maintenance in everyday clinical practice with an individually tailored change of eating habits on the basis of food energy density
ABSTRACT Weight change was analyzed in a cohort of obese patients whose eating habits were changed individually mainly on the basis of food energy density (ED) to evaluate the feasibility of this concept for a larger controlled trial.
Five hundred and thirteen outpatients were treated between January 2003 and December 2006. Dietary counseling was based on a pretreatment food diary. In January 2008, a follow-up (FU) was made. For pre- and post-change eating habits, 5184 dietary protocols of 189 patients were analyzed.
During 10.5 months of treatment, patients lost weight from an initial BMI of 38.8 ± 8.5 by -0.195 kg/m(2) per month; 36% had weight loss >5%, 44% lost 0-4.9% and 20% had weight gain. At follow-up, 413 patients (80.5%) were reached of whom 80 were still in treatment while 333 were considered as self-treatment (ST) group. The ST group had further weight loss by -0.053 kg/m(2) per month over 16.8 months (40% weight loss, 46% maintenance and 14% weight gain), and 164 patients with type-2-diabetes had greater weight loss compared to those without diabetes during ST (Δ-BMI-0.166 vs. -0.028 points/month; p < 0.0001). Energy intake (EI) was reduced by lower ED, beverages and number of meals. Average carbohydrate, fat and protein intake was reduced by 28, 42, and 7%, respectively.
In a unselected cohort of substantially obese patients, the individual change of eating habits based primarily on food ED in conjunction with beverage intake and meal frequency weight loss continued beyond the supported treatment phase indicating a good patient adherence. We consider these data as an encouraging pilot study that certainly requires confirmation under controlled conditions.
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ABSTRACT: Energy density is a relatively new concept that has been identified as an important factor in body weight control in adults and in children and adolescents. The Dietary Guidelines for Americans 2010 encourages consumption of an eating pattern low in energy density to manage body weight. This article describes the systematic evidence-based review conducted by the 2010 Dietary Guidelines Advisory Committee (DGAC), with support from the US Department of Agriculture's Nutrition Evidence Library, which resulted in this recommendation. An update to the committee's review was prepared for this article. PubMed was searched for English-language publications from January 1980 to May 2011. The literature review included 17 studies (seven randomized controlled trials, one nonrandomized controlled trial, and nine cohort studies) in adults and six cohort studies in children and adolescents. Based on this evidence, the 2010 Dietary Guidelines Advisory Committee concluded that strong and consistent evidence in adults indicates that dietary patterns relatively low in energy density improve weight loss and weight maintenance. In addition, the committee concluded that there was moderately strong evidence from methodologically rigorous longitudinal cohort studies in children and adolescents to suggest that there is a positive association between dietary energy density and increased adiposity. This review supports a relationship between energy density and body weight in adults and in children and adolescents such that consuming diets lower in energy density may be an effective strategy for managing body weight.Journal of the American Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics 03/2012; 112(5):671-84. DOI:10.1016/j.jand.2012.01.020 · 2.44 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: There is a lack of published data about the food intake of patients with type 2 diabetes and the changes that they make in response to patient-centred dietary advice. The present study describes the changes reported in response to a nonprescriptive dietary intervention based upon UK dietary guidelines. Two hundred and sixty-two patients (87 women and 175 men) from the Early ACTivity in Diabetes (ACTID) trial who received the dietary intervention returned 4 days food diaries at baseline and 6 months. Nonparametric tests were used to examine changes in meal patterns, total energy intake and energy from food groups between baseline and 6 months. Mean (SD) number of reported meals day(-1) was 3.0 (0.3) and mean (SD) number of snacks was 1.1 (0.6) at both baseline and 6 months for men and women. Men reported decreasing energy intake by a mean (SD) of 912 (1389) KJ/day [218 (332) kcal day(-1) ] (P < 0.001) and women by 515 (1130) KJ/day [123 (270) kcal day(-1) ] (P < 0.001). Men reported reducing energy from alcoholic drinks [-234 (527) KJ day(-1) ; P < 0.001], white bread [-113 (402) KJ day(-1) ; P = 0.001], biscuits [i.e. cookies -67 (205) KJ day(-1) ; P < 0.001] and cakes [-50 (410) KJ day(-1) ; P = 0.0012]. Women reported reducing energy from mixed main meals [-134 (456) KJ day(-1) ; P = 0.036], pasta and rice [-79 (326) KJ day(-1) ; P = 0.019], high-energy drinks [-59 (159) KJ day(-1) ; P = 0.001] and white bread [-59 (368) KJ day(-1) ; P = 0.042]. Men and women in the Early ACTID study reported small changes in higher-energy and lower-fibre foods and drinks in response to patient-centred dietary advice.Journal of Human Nutrition and Dietetics 08/2013; DOI:10.1111/jhn.12154 · 2.07 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Aims: Measurements of resting energy expenditure (REE) were compared with the data of 14 equations to determine their accuracy. Methods: REE measurements by indirect calorimetry in 1,032 unselected overweight and obese men (n = 306) and women (n = 726) were compared with calculations by 14 different formulas. Results: The mean (± SD) values calculated with the Owen, Robertson and Reid and WHO-I equations were not significantly different from our measurement of 1,682 ± 441.9 kcal/24 h. The values obtained with the Livingston, Mifflin, Müller and Bernstein equations were significantly different but still within a range of ±100 kcal/24 h. For females, the best comparison was observed with the Müller equation which, however, differed substantially in males. For men, the Cunningham equation was best, but it gave the worst comparison in women. A good individual match was only obtained with the equation of Robertson and Reid in 34% of the men and with the Owen equation in 38% of the women. All other formulas were less accurate. Drug treatment for 55% of the subjects had no effect on the mismatch between calculated and measured data. Conclusion: Calculations of REE with most equations seem to be valid in a group analysis but they are not helpful for the estimation of an obese patient's individual energy expenditure. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.Annals of Nutrition and Metabolism 10/2014; 65(4):299-309. DOI:10.1159/000364953 · 2.75 Impact Factor