MicroRNA miR-183 Functions as an Oncogene by Targeting the Transcription Factor EGR1 and Promoting Tumor Cell Migration
ABSTRACT The transcription factor EGR1 is a tumor suppressor gene that is downregulated in many cancer types. Clinically, loss of EGR1 translates to increased tumor transformation and subsequent patient morbidity and mortality. In synovial sarcoma, the SS18-SSX fusion protein represses EGR1 expression through a direct association with the EGR1 promoter. However, the mechanism through which EGR1 becomes downregulated in other tumor types is unclear. Here, we report that EGR1 is regulated by microRNA (miR)-183 in multiple tumor types including synovial sarcoma, rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS), and colon cancer. Using an integrative network analysis, we identified that miR-183 is significantly overexpressed in these tumor types as well as in corresponding tumor cell lines. Bioinformatic analyses suggested that miR-183 could target EGR1 mRNA and this specific interaction was validated in vitro. miR-183 knockdown in synovial sarcoma, RMS, and colon cancer cell lines revealed deregulation of a miRNA network composed of miR-183-EGR1-PTEN in these tumors. Integrated miRNA- and mRNA-based genomic analyses indicated that miR-183 is an important contributor to cell migration in these tumor types and this result was functionally validated to be occurring via an EGR1-based mechanism. In conclusion, our findings have significant implications in the mechanisms underlying EGR1 regulation in cancers. miR-183 has a potential oncogenic role through the regulation of 2 tumor suppressor genes, EGR1 and PTEN, and the deregulation of this fundamental miRNA regulatory network may be central to many tumor types.
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ABSTRACT: Prostate cancer is the most common cancer in men, and most patients have localized disease at the time of diagnosis. However, 4% already present with metastatic disease. Epithelial-mesenchymal transition is a fundamental process in carcinogenesis that has been shown to be involved in prostate cancer progression. The main event in epithelial-mesenchymal transition is the repression of E-cadherin by transcription factors, but the process is also regulated by microRNAs. The aim of this study was to analyze gene and microRNA expression involved in epithelial-mesenchymal transition in localized prostate cancer and metastatic prostate cancer cell lines and correlate with clinicopathological findings. We studied 51 fresh frozen tissue samples from patients with localized prostate cancer (PCa) treated by radical prostatectomy and three metastatic prostate cancer cell lines (LNCaP, DU145, PC3). The expression of 10 genes and 18 miRNAs were assessed by real-time PCR. The patients were divided into groups according to Gleason score, pathological stage, preoperative PSA, biochemical recurrence, and risk group for correlation with clinicopathological findings. The majority of localized PCa cases showed an epithelial phenotype, with overexpression of E-cadherin and underexpression of the mesenchymal markers. MiRNA-200 family members and miRNAs 203, 205, 183, 373, and 21 were overexpressed, while miRNAs 9, 495, 29b, and 1 were underexpressed. Low-expression levels of miRNAs 200b, 30a, and 1 were significantly associated with pathological stage. Lower expression of miR-200b was also associated with a Gleason score ≥8 and shorter biochemical recurrence-free survival. Furthermore, low-expression levels of miR-30a and high-expression levels of Vimentin and Twist1 were observed in the high-risk group. Compared with the primary tumor, the metastatic cell lines showed significantly higher expression levels of miR-183 and Twist1. In summary, miRNAs 200b, 30a, 1, and 183 and the genes Twist1 and Vimentin might play important roles in the progression of prostate cancer and may eventually become important prognostic markers.PLoS ONE 01/2014; 9(11):e113700. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0113700 · 3.53 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: PI3K/AKT signaling leads to reduced apoptosis, stimulates growth and increases proliferation. Under normal conditions, activation is tightly controlled and dependent on both extracellular growth signals and the availability of amino acids and glucose. Genetic aberrations leading to PI3K/AKT hyper-activation are observed at considerable frequency in all major nodes in most tumors. In colorectal cancer the most commonly observed pathway changes are IGF2 overexpression, PIK3CA mutations and PTEN mutations and deletions. Combined, these alterations are found in about 40% of large bowel tumors. In addition, but not mutually exclusive to these, KRAS mutations are observed at a similar frequency. There are however additional, less frequent and more poorly understood events that may also push the PI3K/AKT pathway into overdrive and thus promote malignant growth. Here we discuss aberrations of components at the genetic, epigenetic, transcriptional, post-transcriptional, translational and post-translational level where perturbations may drive excessive PI3K/AKT signaling. Integrating multiple molecular levels will advance our understanding of this cancer critical circuit and more importantly, improve our ability to pharmacologically target the pathway in view of clonal development, tumor heterogeneity and drug resistance mechanisms. In this review, we revisit the PI3K/AKT-pathway cancer susceptibility syndromes, summarize the known aberrations at the different regulatory levels and the prognostic and predictive values of these alterations in colorectal cancer. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) - Reviews on Cancer 11/2014; DOI:10.1016/j.bbcan.2014.09.008 · 7.58 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: In our previous study, miRNA-183, a miRNA in the miR-96-182-183 cluster, was significantly over-expressed in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC). In the present study, we explored the oncogenic roles of miR-183 in ESCC by gain and loss of function analysis in an esophageal cancer cell line (EC9706). Genome-wide mRNA microarray was applied to determine the genes that were regulated directly or indirectly by miR-183. 3'UTR luciferase reporter assay, RT-PCR, and Western blot were conducted to verify the target gene of miR-183. Cell culture results showed that miR-183 inhibited apoptosis (p < 0.05), enhanced cell proliferation (p < 0.05), and accelerated G1/S transition (p < 0.05). Moreover, the inhibitory effect of miR-183 on apoptosis was rescued when miR-183 was suppressed via miR-183 inhibitor (p < 0.05). Western blot analysis showed that the expression of programmed cell death 4 (PDCD4), which was predicted as the target gene of miR-183 by microarray profiling and bioinformatics predictions, decreased when miR-183 was over-expressed. The 3'UTR luciferase reporter assay confirmed that miR-183 directly regulated PDCD4 by binding to sequences in the 3'UTR of PDCD4. Pearson correlation analysis further confirmed the significant negative correlation between miR-183 and PDCD4 in both cell lines and in ESCC patients. Our data suggest that miR-183 might play an oncogenic role in ESCC by regulating PDCD4 expression.Molecules and Cells 12/2014; DOI:10.14348/molcells.2014.0147 · 2.24 Impact Factor