Association of chronic kidney disease with muscle deficits in children.

Montreal Children's Hospital, 2300 Tupper Street, Montreal, Quebec, H3H 1P3 Canada.
Journal of the American Society of Nephrology (Impact Factor: 9.47). 02/2011; 22(2):377-86. DOI: 10.1681/ASN.2010060603
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT The effect of chronic kidney disease (CKD) on muscle mass in children, independent of poor growth and delayed maturation, is not well understood. We sought to characterize whole body and regional lean mass (LM) and fat mass (FM) in children and adolescents with CKD and to identify correlates of LM deficits in CKD. We estimated LM and FM from dual energy x-ray absorptiometry scans in 143 children with CKD and 958 controls at two pediatric centers. We expressed whole body, trunk, and leg values of LM and FM as Z-scores relative to height, sitting height, and leg length, respectively, using the controls as the reference. We used multivariable regression models to compare Z-scores in CKD and controls, adjusted for age and maturation, and to identify correlates of LM Z-scores in CKD. Greater CKD severity associated with greater leg LM deficits. Compared with controls, leg LM Z-scores were similar in CKD stages 2 to 3 (difference: 0.02 [95% CI: -0.20, 0.24]; P = 0.8), but were lower in CKD stages 4 to 5 (-0.41 [-0.66, -0.15]; P = 0.002) and dialysis (-1.03 [-1.33, -0.74]; P < 0.0001). Among CKD participants, growth hormone therapy associated with greater leg LM Z-score (0.58 [0.03, 1.13]; P = 0.04), adjusted for CKD severity. Serum albumin, bicarbonate, and markers of inflammation did not associate with LM Z-scores. CKD associated with greater trunk LM and FM, variable whole body LM, and normal leg FM, compared with controls. In conclusion, advanced CKD associates with significant deficits in leg lean mass, indicating skeletal muscle wasting. These data call for prospective studies of interventions to improve muscle mass among children with CKD.

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