The effect of chronic kidney disease (CKD) on muscle mass in children, independent of poor growth and delayed maturation, is not well understood. We sought to characterize whole body and regional lean mass (LM) and fat mass (FM) in children and adolescents with CKD and to identify correlates of LM deficits in CKD. We estimated LM and FM from dual energy x-ray absorptiometry scans in 143 children with CKD and 958 controls at two pediatric centers. We expressed whole body, trunk, and leg values of LM and FM as Z-scores relative to height, sitting height, and leg length, respectively, using the controls as the reference. We used multivariable regression models to compare Z-scores in CKD and controls, adjusted for age and maturation, and to identify correlates of LM Z-scores in CKD. Greater CKD severity associated with greater leg LM deficits. Compared with controls, leg LM Z-scores were similar in CKD stages 2 to 3 (difference: 0.02 [95% CI: -0.20, 0.24]; P = 0.8), but were lower in CKD stages 4 to 5 (-0.41 [-0.66, -0.15]; P = 0.002) and dialysis (-1.03 [-1.33, -0.74]; P < 0.0001). Among CKD participants, growth hormone therapy associated with greater leg LM Z-score (0.58 [0.03, 1.13]; P = 0.04), adjusted for CKD severity. Serum albumin, bicarbonate, and markers of inflammation did not associate with LM Z-scores. CKD associated with greater trunk LM and FM, variable whole body LM, and normal leg FM, compared with controls. In conclusion, advanced CKD associates with significant deficits in leg lean mass, indicating skeletal muscle wasting. These data call for prospective studies of interventions to improve muscle mass among children with CKD.
"A study in 143 children with CKD  revealed that advanced CKD was associated with a low lean leg mass, indicating skeletal muscle wasting. Recent literature  suggests that muscle wasting in the context of CKD may be due to inflammation. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background
The prevalence of obese and overweight patients has increased dramatically worldwide. Both are common risk factors for chronic kidney disease (CKD) as indicated by a diminished estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) or microalbuminuria. This study aimed to investigate whether anthropometric parameters [waist circumference (WC), waist-to-height ratio (WHtR) and body mass index (BMI)] are associated with renal function in a population-based study of Caucasian subjects.
Data from 3749 subjects (1825 women) aged 20 to 81 years from the Study of Health in Pomerania (SHIP) were analysed. Renal indices, including the urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio (uACR), microalbuminuria, eGFR and CKD, were studied. Parameters of anthropometry (WC, WHtR and BMI) were categorised into sex-specific quintiles.
Analysis of variance (ANOVA) models, adjusting for age, sex, type 2 diabetes mellitus and hypertension, revealed that a high and low WC or WHtR and low BMI were independently related to a higher uACR. Logistic regression models confirmed these results with respect to uACR and showed that subjects with a high or low WC or a high WHtR had increased odds of microalbuminuria. The ANOVA models revealed no relations of the investigated anthropometric parameters with eGFR. However, subjects with high values for these parameters had increased odds of CKD.
Our results demonstrate U-shaped associations between markers of central fat distribution and uACR or microalbuminuria in the general population, suggesting that both obese and very thin subjects have a higher risk of renal impairment.
"Growth retardation and muscle wasting in CKD are associated with perturbations in the growth hormone–IGF-1 axis . Treatment of children with CKD with recombinant human GH has been identified as an important and significant determinant of higher muscle mass relative to height . This finding emphasizes the potential importance of IGF-1 in the pathogenesis of muscle wasting in CKD. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Children with chronic kidney disease (CKD) are at risk for "cachexia" or "protein-energy wasting" (PEW). These terms describe a pathophysiologic process resulting in the loss of muscle, with or without loss of fat, and involving maladaptive responses, including anorexia and elevated metabolic rate. PEW has been defined specifically in relation to CKD. We review the diagnostic criteria for cachexia and PEW in CKD and consider the limitations and applicability of these criteria to children with CKD. In addition, we present an overview of the manifestations and mechanisms of cachexia and PEW. A host of pathogenetic factors are considered, including systemic inflammation, endocrine perturbations, and abnormal neuropeptide signaling, as well as poor nutritional intake. Mortality risk, which is 100- to 200-fold higher in patients with end-stage renal disease than in the general population, is strongly correlated with the components of cachexia/PEW. Further research into the causes and consequences of wasting and growth retardation is needed in order to improve the survival and quality of life for children with CKD.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To quantify lean mass (LM) and fat mass (FM) in survivors of childhood allogeneic hematopoietic stem-cell transplantation (alloHSCT) compared with healthy reference participants and identify risk factors for body composition abnormalities.
Whole body LM and FM were measured with dual energy x-ray absorptiometry in 54 survivors (ages 5-25 years) and 894 healthy reference participants in a cross-sectional study. Multivariate regression models were used to compare sex- and race-specific Z-scores for LM for height (LM-Ht) and FM for height (FM-Ht) in survivors and reference participants and to identify correlates of LM-Ht and FM-Ht Z-scores in alloHSCT.
Height Z-scores were significantly lower in alloHSCT survivors (P < .001) compared with reference participants; body mass index Z-scores did not differ (P = .13). Survivors had significantly lower mean LM-Ht Z-scores (-0.72; 95% CI, -1.02--0.42; P < .001) and greater FM-Ht Z-scores (1.10; 95% CI, 0.84-1.39; P < .001) compared with reference participants. LM-Ht Z-score deficits in alloHSCT survivors were larger (-1.26; 95% CI, -1.53--0.99; P < .001) after adjustment for FM-Ht Z-scores. Endocrinopathies and alloHSCT characteristics were not associated with LM-Ht or FM-Ht Z-scores.
Survivors of childhood alloHSCT have significant LM deficits and FM excess. Future studies should identify the mechanism and consequences of these abnormalities.
The Journal of pediatrics 08/2011; 160(1):122-8. DOI:10.1016/j.jpeds.2011.06.041 · 3.79 Impact Factor
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