Protein tyrosine phosphatase N2 regulates TNFα-induced signalling and cytokine secretion in human intestinal epithelial cells.
ABSTRACT The Crohn's disease (CD) susceptibility gene, protein tyrosine phosphatase N2 (PTPN2), regulates interferon γ (IFNγ)-induced signalling and epithelial barrier function in T₈₄ intestinal epithelial cells (IECs). The aim of this study was to investigate whether PTPN2 is also regulated by tumour necrosis factor α (TNFα) and if PTPN2 controls TNFα-induced signalling and effects in IECs.
T₈₄ IECs were used for all cell studies. Protein levels were assessed by western blotting, mRNA levels by reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) and cytokine levels by ELISA. PTPN2 knock-down was induced by small interfering RNA (siRNA). Imaging was performed by immunohistochemistry or immunofluorescence.
TNFα treatment elevated PTPN2 mRNA as well as nuclear and cytoplasmic protein levels and caused cytoplasmic accumulation of PTPN2. Biopsy specimens from patients with active CD showed strong immunohistochemical PTPN2 staining in the epithelium, whereas samples from patients with CD in remission featured PTPN2 levels similar to controls without inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Though samples from patients with active ulcerative colitis (UC) revealed more PTPN2 protein than non-IBD patients and patients with UC in remission, their PTPN2 expression was lower than in active CD. Samples from patients with CD in remission and responding to anti-TNF treatment also showed PTPN2 levels that were similar to those in control patients. Pharmacological inhibition of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) by BMS-345541 prevented the TNFα-induced rise in PTPN2 protein, independent of apoptotic events. PTPN2 knock-down revealed that the phosphatase regulates TNFα-induced extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) and p38 phosphorylation, without affecting c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), inhibitor of κB (IκB) or NF-κB phosphorylation. Loss of PTPN2 potentiated TNFα-induced secretion of interleukin 6 (IL-6) and IL-8. In TNFα- and IFNγ-co-treated cells, loss of PTPN2 enhanced protein expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS).
TNFα induces PTPN2 expression in IECs. Loss of PTPN2 promotes TNFα-induced mitogen-activated protein kinase signalling and the induction of inflammatory mediators. These data indicate that PTPN2 activity could play a crucial role in the establishment of chronic inflammatory conditions in the intestine, such as CD.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Objective Ulcerative colitis (UC) and Crohn’s disease (CD) result from an interaction between genetic and environmental factors. Though several polymorphisms have been identified in PTPN2, their roles in the incidence of UC and CD are conflicting. This meta-analysis was aimed to clarify the impact of these polymorphisms on UC and CD risk. Method PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane Library and CBM were searched until 23 July 2013 for eligible studies on three PTPN2 polymorphisms: rs2542151, rs1893217 and rs7234029. Data were extracted, and pooled odd ratios (ORs) as well as 95 % confidence intervals (95 % CIs) were calculated. Conclusion The meta-analysis indicated that rs2542151, rs1893217 and rs1893217 were associated with increased CD risk, while the former was associated with increased UC risk. The differences in age of onset and ethnic groups may influence the associations. Gene–gene and gene–environment interactions should be investigated in the future. Results Seventeen studies with 18,308 cases and 20,406 controls were included. Significant associations were found between rs2542151 polymorphism and CD susceptibility (OR = 1.22, 95 % CI, 1.15–1.30, I 2 = 32 %), as well as between rs2542151 and UC susceptibility (OR = 1.16, 95 % CI, 1.07–1.25, I 2 = 39 %). A similar result was found in Caucasians, but not in Asians. Moreover, a significant increase in CD risk for all carriers of the minor allele of rs1893217 (OR = 1.45, 95 % CI, 1.23–1.70, I 2 = 0 %) and rs7234029 (OR = 1.36, 95 % CI, 1.16–1.59, I 2 = 0 %) were found. For children, the rs1893217 polymorphism appeared to confer susceptibility to CD (OR = 1.56, 95 % CI, 1.28–1.89, I 2 = 0 %).Inflammation Research 10/2013; · 1.96 Impact Factor
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Pyruvate kinase M2 (PKM2), a key glycolytic enzyme, is involved in multiple cellular processes including apoptosis. Recently increased fecal PKM2 has been found in Crohn's disease (CD), but little is known regarding its function in the pathophysiology of the disease. The intestinal expression of PKM2 and its involvement in CD was investigated. Pyruvate kinase M2 expression in mucosal biopsies from patients with CD and normal controls was detected by immunohistochemistry. A murine model of colitis induced by trinitrobenzenesulphonic acid (TNBS) was established and expression of PKM2, B cell lymphoma-extra large (Bcl-xl), active caspase-3 as well as cleaved poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) was examined for association of PKM2 with intestinal epithelial cell (IEC) apoptosis. Furthermore, we treated human IEC line HT-29 by tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and used RNA interference to analyze the role of PKM2 in IEC apoptosis. Intestinal expression of PKM2 was higher in patients with CD compared with normal controls mainly locating in IECs. In TNBS-induced colitis, up-regulation of PKM2 was accompanied by the elevated expression of Bcl-xl, active caspase-3, and cleaved PARP. PKM2 was co-localized with active caspase-3 in IECs marked by E-cadherin, suggesting its role in IEC apoptosis. Expression of PKM2 and Bcl-xl in TNF-α-induced HT-29 cells was increased, while TNF-α had no effect on cellular localization of PKM2. Furthermore, knockdown of PKM2 by siRNA could inhibit expression of Bcl-xl but enhance apoptosis in TNF-α-treated HT-29 cells. The up-regulation of PKM2 might protect IECs against apoptosis possibly through Bcl-xl in CD, indicating its important role in the pathophysiology of CD.Digestive Diseases and Sciences 05/2014; · 2.26 Impact Factor
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Intercellular junctions represent the key contact points and sites of communication between neighboring cells. Assembly of these junctions is absolutely essential for the structural integrity of cell monolayers, tissues and organs. Disruption of junctions can have severe consequences such as diarrhea, edema and sepsis, and contribute to the development of chronic inflammatory diseases. Cell junctions are not static structures, but rather they represent highly dynamic micro-domains that respond to signals from the intracellular and extracellular environments to modify their composition and function. This review article will focus on the regulation of tight junctions and adherens junctions by phosphatase enzymes that play an essential role in preserving and modulating the properties of intercellular junction proteins.Tissue barriers. 12/2013; 1(5):e26713.