Protein tyrosine phosphatase N2 regulates TNFα-induced signalling and cytokine secretion in human intestinal epithelial cells.
ABSTRACT The Crohn's disease (CD) susceptibility gene, protein tyrosine phosphatase N2 (PTPN2), regulates interferon γ (IFNγ)-induced signalling and epithelial barrier function in T₈₄ intestinal epithelial cells (IECs). The aim of this study was to investigate whether PTPN2 is also regulated by tumour necrosis factor α (TNFα) and if PTPN2 controls TNFα-induced signalling and effects in IECs.
T₈₄ IECs were used for all cell studies. Protein levels were assessed by western blotting, mRNA levels by reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) and cytokine levels by ELISA. PTPN2 knock-down was induced by small interfering RNA (siRNA). Imaging was performed by immunohistochemistry or immunofluorescence.
TNFα treatment elevated PTPN2 mRNA as well as nuclear and cytoplasmic protein levels and caused cytoplasmic accumulation of PTPN2. Biopsy specimens from patients with active CD showed strong immunohistochemical PTPN2 staining in the epithelium, whereas samples from patients with CD in remission featured PTPN2 levels similar to controls without inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Though samples from patients with active ulcerative colitis (UC) revealed more PTPN2 protein than non-IBD patients and patients with UC in remission, their PTPN2 expression was lower than in active CD. Samples from patients with CD in remission and responding to anti-TNF treatment also showed PTPN2 levels that were similar to those in control patients. Pharmacological inhibition of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) by BMS-345541 prevented the TNFα-induced rise in PTPN2 protein, independent of apoptotic events. PTPN2 knock-down revealed that the phosphatase regulates TNFα-induced extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) and p38 phosphorylation, without affecting c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), inhibitor of κB (IκB) or NF-κB phosphorylation. Loss of PTPN2 potentiated TNFα-induced secretion of interleukin 6 (IL-6) and IL-8. In TNFα- and IFNγ-co-treated cells, loss of PTPN2 enhanced protein expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS).
TNFα induces PTPN2 expression in IECs. Loss of PTPN2 promotes TNFα-induced mitogen-activated protein kinase signalling and the induction of inflammatory mediators. These data indicate that PTPN2 activity could play a crucial role in the establishment of chronic inflammatory conditions in the intestine, such as CD.
- SourceAvailable from: John P Hegarty
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- "It is a key negative regulator of important immune mediators STAT1 and STAT3, as well as p38 and ERK1/2 phosphorylation . Two recent studies have reported increased PTPN2 expression in CD patients  . We undertook a genetic association replication study for PTPN2 in patients from a familial IBD registry from central Pennsylvania. "
ABSTRACT: PTPN2 is a risk gene for Crohn's disease (CD). We investigated whether PTPN2 genetic variants (rs2542151 and rs2542152) were associated with CD in a familial IBD registry. Both rs2542151 and rs2542152 are associated with CD, but not ulcerative colitis (UC). mRNA expression levels of PTPN2 were significantly increased in intestinal tissues ( p =0.0493), and nearly significantly increased in B cells ( p =0.0889) from CD patients, but not significantly altered in UC. cDNA microarray results found that PTPN2 was down-regulated by NKX2-3 knockdown in human cells. We confirmed this observation by RT-PCR analyses in NKX2-3 knockdown in B cells from IBD patients and human intestinal microvascular endothelial cells (HIMEC). In addition, we found that mRNA expression of another IBD-associated gene, NKX2-3, was increased in intestinal tissues and B cells from CD patients, but not significantly increased in UC patients. A positive correlation was observed between mRNA expression of PTPN2 and NKX2-3 in B cells and in intestinal tissues from both CD and UC patients. These results suggest that PTPN2 may have an important role in CD pathogenesis and may represent a potential diagnostic and therapeutic target for IBD.Disease markers 02/2012; 32(2):83-91. DOI:10.3233/DMA-2011-0867 · 2.17 Impact Factor
Type 1 Diabetes - Pathogenesis, Genetics and Immunotherapy, 11/2011; , ISBN: 978-953-307-362-0
- "SNP rs1893217(C), an autoimmune associated variant in PTPN2, reveals an impairment of IL2R signaling in CD4+ T cells (Long et al., 2011). Scharl et al., 2011 demonstrated that PTPN2 is activated by TNF-α and regulates TNF-α-induced MAPK signaling and on a functional level, loss of PTPN2 is associated with increased expression and secretion of proinflammatory mediators in the intestinal epithelium, a potential role for PTPN2 in the pathogenesis of CD. "
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ABSTRACT: Autophagy is a process of central importance for maintaining cell homeostasis, survival, and the regulation of inflammation. Recent studies associated variants within the gene loci, encoding protein tyrosine phosphatase nonreceptor type 2 (PTPN2), and autophagy genes, such as autophagy-related 16-like 1 (ATG16L1), with chronic inflammatory disorders, such as Crohn's disease (CD). We show that PTPN2 regulates autophagy in human intestinal epithelial cells (IEC) and primary colonic lamina propria fibroblasts (CLPF). Protein analysis in IEC and CLPF was performed by western blotting. Autophagososme formation was assessed by LC3B immunofluorescence or immunohistochemistry. Human intestinal tissue samples were obtained from noninflammatory bowel disease (IBD) control or from CD patients and genotyped for disease-associated PTPN2 or ATG16L1 variations. Knockdown of PTPN2 causes impaired autophagosome formation and dysfunctional autophagy resulted in increased levels of intracellular Listeria monocytogenes (LM) and elevated IEC apoptosis in response to tumor necrosis factor (TNF) and interferon gamma (IFN-γ). Similar findings were observed in primary CLPF derived from CD patients carrying the CD-associated PTPN2 variant. Presence of the ATG16L1 variant prevented the cytokine-induced rise in PTPN2 protein, finally resulting in impaired LC3B-II levels in IEC. Actively inflamed intestinal biopsies from CD patients carrying either ATG16L1 or PTPN2 genetic variants revealed aberrant LC3B expression patterns when compared with samples from non-IBD control patients. Our results demonstrate that PTPN2 regulates autophagosome formation in human intestinal cells. We provide a model of how a dysfunction of the CD susceptibility genes, PTPN2 and/or ATG16L1, may contribute to the onset and perpetuation of chronic intestinal inflammation.Inflammatory Bowel Diseases 01/2012; 18(7):1287-302. DOI:10.1002/ibd.21891 · 5.48 Impact Factor