Meiosis errors in over 20,000 oocytes studied in the practice of preimplantation aneuploidy testing
ABSTRACT This study presents the world’s largest series of over 20,000 oocytes tested for aneuploidies, involving chromosomes 13,16, 18, 21 and 22, providing the data on the rates and types of aneuploidies and their origin. Almost every second oocyte (46.8%) is abnormal, with predominance of extra chromatid errors predicting predominance of trisomies (53%) over monosomies (26%) in the resulting embryos (2:1), which is opposite to monosomy predominance observed in embryo testing. Of the detected anomalies in oocytes, 40% are complex, so testing for a few most prevalent chromosome errors may allow detection of the majority of abnormal embryos. Chromosome 21 and 22 errors are more prevalent, while two different patterns of error origin were observed for different chromosomes: chromosome 16 and 22 errors originate predominantly from meiosis II, compared with chromosome 13, 18 and 21 errors originating from meiosis I. This provides the first evidence for the differences in the aneuploid embryo survival depending on the meiotic origin. Considering the problem of mosaicism, which is the major limitation of the cleavage-stage testing, the direct oocyte aneuploidy testing by polar body analysis may be of obvious practical value in improving accuracy and reliability of avoiding aneuploid embryos for transfer.
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ABSTRACT: The Sixth Evian Annual Reproduction (EVAR) Workshop Group Meeting was held to evaluate the impact of IVF/intracytoplasmic sperm injection on the health of assisted-conception children. Epidemiologists, reproductive endocrinologists, embryologists and geneticists presented data from published literature and ongoing research on the incidence of genetic and epigenetic abnormalities and congenital malformations in assisted-conception versus naturally conceived children to reach a consensus on the reasons for potential differences in outcomes between these two groups. IVF-conceived children have lower birthweights and higher peripheral fat, blood pressure and fasting glucose concentrations than controls. Growth, development and cognitive function in assisted-conception children are similar to controls. The absolute risk of imprinting disorders after assisted reproduction is less than 1%. A direct link between assisted reproduction and health-related outcomes in assisted-conception children could not be established. Women undergoing assisted reproduction are often older, increasing the chances of obtaining abnormal gametes that may cause deviations in outcomes between assisted-conception and naturally conceived children. However, after taking into account these factors, it is not clear to what extent poorer outcomes are due to the assisted reproduction procedures themselves. Large-scale, multicentre, prospective epidemiological studies are needed to investigate this further and to confirm long-term health consequences in assisted-conception children. Assisted reproduction treatment is a general term used to describe methods of achieving pregnancy by artificial means and includes IVF and sperm implantation. The effect of assisted reproduction treatment on the health of children born using these artificial methods is not fully understood. In April 2011, fertility research experts met to give presentations based on research in this area and to look carefully at the evidence for the effects of assisted reproduction treatment on children’s health. The purpose of this review was to reach an agreement on whether there are differences in the health of assisted-conception children with naturally conceived children. The researchers discovered no increased risk in birth defects in assisted-conception children compared with naturally conceived children. They found that IVF-conceived children have lower birth weights and higher fat under the skin, higher blood pressure and higher fasting glucose concentrations than naturally conceived children; however, growth, development and cognitive function are similar between groups. A very low risk of disorders of genetic control was observed in assisted-conception children. Overall, there did not appear to be a direct link between assisted reproduction treatment and children’s health. The researchers concluded that the cause of some differences in the health of children conceived using assisted reproduction treatment may be due to the age of the woman receiving treatment. Large-scale, research studies are needed to study the long-term health of children conceived using assisted reproduction treatment.Reproductive biomedicine online 01/2013; DOI:10.1016/j.rbmo.2013.10.013 · 2.98 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Differentiation of chromatin structure and function during oogenesis is essential to confer the mammalian oocyte with meiotic and developmental potential. Errors in chromosome segregation during female meiosis and subsequent transmission of an abnormal chromosome complement (aneuploidy) to the early conceptus are one of the leading causes of pregnancy loss in women. The chromatin remodeling protein ATRX (α-thalassemia mental retardation X-linked) has recently emerged as a critical factor involved in heterochromatin formation at mammalian centromeres during meiosis. In mammalian oocytes, ATRX binds to centromeric heterochromatin domains where it is required for accurate chromosome segregation. Loss of ATRX function induces abnormal meiotic chromosome morphology, reduces histone H3 phosphorylation, and promotes a high incidence of aneuploidy associated with severely reduced fertility. The presence of centromeric breaks during the transition to the first mitosis in the early embryo indicates that the role of ATRX in chromosome segregation is mediated through an epigenetic mechanism involving the maintenance of chromatin modifications associated with pericentric heterochromatin (PCH) formation and chromosome condensation. This is consistent with the existence of a potential molecular link between centromeric and PCH in the epigenetic control of centromere function and maintenance of chromosome stability in mammalian oocytes. Dissecting the molecular mechanisms of ATRX function during meiosis will have important clinical implications towards uncovering the epigenetic factors contributing to the onset of aneuploidy in the human oocyte.Mouse Development: From Oocytes to Stem Cells, 1 edited by Jacek Z. Kubiak, 07/2012: chapter 3: pages 45-68; Springer Berlin Heidelberg., ISBN: 978-3-642-30406-4
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ABSTRACT: Aneuploidy is a leading cause of early embryo loss, miscarriage and birth defects in humans. It is predominantly brought about by the mis-segregation of homologous chromosomes (bivalents) in the first meiotic division (MI) of the oocyte, with advanced maternal age being a risk factor. Although its etiology is likely to be multifactorial the predominating factors remain amenable for study in models such as mice. Homologous chromosome separation in MI is achieved by the mono-orientation of functionally paired sister kinetochores but despite this unique division the Spindle Assembly Checkpoint (SAC), which prevents sister chromatid mis-segregation in mitosis, is functional in mouse oocytes. However, it remains to be fully established what types of error the SAC respond to, for example the presence of univalents, and how sensitive it is to attachment or tension defects in bivalent alignment. Such errors may increase with advanced maternal age as chromosomes lose their cohesive ties and the oocyte has less capacity to service the metabolic needs associated with meiotic division. Environmental insults and hormonal changes could also affect the fidelity of this process. Here we review how all these factors converge on the meiotic spindle during MI to cause mis-segregation errors.Experimental Cell Research 02/2012; 318(12):1394-9. DOI:10.1016/j.yexcr.2012.02.012 · 3.37 Impact Factor