Association between affective temperaments and brain-derived neurotrophic factor, glycogen synthase kinase 3β and Wnt signaling pathway gene polymorphisms in healthy subjects.
ABSTRACT There is increased attention towards elucidating genetic factors that underlie both psychiatric diseases as well as healthy psychological phenomena. Recent evidence suggests that temperamental traits, including affective temperaments, are heritable and associated with genetic polymorphisms. Genetic research examining affective temperaments using the Temperament Evaluation of the Memphis, Pisa, Paris, and San Diego Autoquestionnaire (TEMPS-A) may therefore elucidate the concept of a spectrum of mood disorders and the genetic relationship between affective temperaments and mood disorders. The purpose of this study was to examine the association between brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), glycogen synthase kinase 3β(GSK3β) and Wnt signaling pathway (Wnt) gene polymorphisms and affective temperaments in non-clinical Japanese subjects, as measured by TEMPS-A.
44 healthy Japanese subjects were recruited through our university hospital and completed the TEMPS-A. We genotyped three SNPs (single nucleotide polymorphisms) from the BDNF, GSK3βand Wnt genes in order to test the relationship between these gene variants and five affective temperaments measured by the TEMPS-A.
No significant difference in the frequency of alleles between affective temperaments (depressive, cyclothymic, hyperthymic, irritable and anxious temperament) and non affective temperaments was shown. One-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) revealed no significant differences among 5 groups (depressive, cyclothymic, hyperthymic, irritable and anxious temperament) in healthy subjects for all the scores of affective temperaments by TEMPS-A.
The number of subjects was relatively small.
The variant of BDNF, GSK3β and Wnt gene polymorphism might not be related to the five temperaments of TEMPS-A and TEMPS-A score in healthy Japanese subjects. The present results suggest that BDNF, GSK3βand Wnt genes, might not have a major role in the development of personality traits. Further studies with larger sample size are warranted to evaluate the association of affective temperament and gene polymorphisms.
[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Temperaments are permanent variations of personality, traits and ways of reacting that characterize individuals and remain constant throughout several diverse situations. Temperaments play a crucial role in determining emotional reactions, therefore several temperamental models attempted to establish relationship between temperaments and affective disorders. According to the model of Akiskal, affective temperaments are subclinical and subaffective trait-like manifestations of affective disorders. Unlike several models of temperament which were developed theoretically in order to describe healthy human functioning, and were later extrapolated to also capture the pathological domains of mental and behavioral features, the model of affective temperaments was developed on Kraepelinian and Kretschmerian traditions and based on the observation of patients with mood disorders and their healthy first degree relatives and from that point broadened to encompass also the subclinical and nonclinical domains of affective reactivity. There is accumulating evidence concerning the development of affective temperaments based on their adaptive evolutionary characteristics and genetic background, and normative data from large national studies on general and healthy samples indicate their universal characteristics. Studies in affective patient populations indicate that the relationship between affective temperaments and affective illness is more complex than a simple extrapolation from psychopathology and mental health, and affective temperaments may play a patoplastic role in mood disorders determining their evolution, clinical features, main characteristics and outcome. A large body of data on affective temperaments has been published during the last decade, deserving a critical analysis presented in this review.Current Psychiatry Reviews 01/2013;