Polymorphisms of HIV-2 integrase and selection of resistance to raltegravir
ABSTRACT Human Immunodeficiency Virus type 2 is naturally resistant to some antiretroviral drugs, restricting therapeutic options for patients infected with HIV-2. Regimens including integrase inhibitors (INI) seem to be effective, but little data on HIV-2 integrase (IN) polymorphisms and resistance pathways are available.
The integrase coding sequence from 45 HIV-2-infected, INI-naïve, patients was sequenced and aligned against the ROD (group A) or EHO (group B) reference strains and polymorphic or conserved positions were analyzed.To select for raltegravir (RAL)-resistant variants in vitro, the ROD strain was cultured under increasing sub-optimal RAL concentrations for successive rounds. The phenotype of the selected variants was assessed using an MTT assay.
We describe integrase gene polymorphisms in HIV-2 clinical isolates from 45 patients. Sixty-seven percent of the integrase residues were conserved. The HHCC Zinc coordination motif, the catalytic triad DDE motif, and AA involved in IN-DNA binding and correct positioning were highly conserved and unchanged with respect to HIV-1 whereas the connecting residues of the N-terminal domain, the dimer interface and C-terminal LEDGF binding domain were highly conserved but differed from HIV-1. The N155 H INI resistance-associated mutation (RAM) was detected in the virus population from one ARV-treated, INI-naïve patient, and the 72I and 201I polymorphisms were detected in samples from 36 and 38 patients respectively. No other known INI RAM was detected.Under RAL selective pressure in vitro, a ROD variant carrying the Q91R+I175M mutations was selected. The Q91R and I175M mutations emerged simultaneously and conferred phenotypic resistance (13-fold increase in IC50). The Q91R+I175M combination was absent from all clinical isolates. Three-dimensional modeling indicated that residue 91 lies on the enzyme surface, at the entry of a pocket containing the DDE catalytic triad and that adding a positive charge (Gln to Arg) might compromise IN-RAL affinity.
HIV-2 polymorphisms from 45 INI-naïve patients are described. Conserved regions as well as frequencies of HIV-2 IN polymorphisms were comparable to HIV-1. Two new mutations (Q91R and I175M) that conferred high resistance to RAL were selected in vitro, which might affect therapeutic outcome.
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ABSTRACT: To characterize the HIV-2 integrase gene polymorphisms and the pathways to resistance of HIV-2 patients failing a raltegravir-containing regimen, we studied 63 integrase strand transfer inhibitors (INSTI)-naïve patients, and 10 heavily pretreated patients exhibiting virological failure while receiving a salvage raltegravir-containing regimen. All patients were infected by HIV-2 group A. 61.4% of the integrase residues were conserved, including the catalytic motif residues. No INSTI-major resistance mutations were detected in the virus population from naïve patients, but two amino acids that are secondary resistance mutations to INSTIs in HIV-1 were observed. The 10 raltegravir-experienced patients exhibited resistance mutations via three main genetic pathways: N155H, Q148R, and eventually E92Q - T97A. The 155 pathway was preferentially used (7/10 patients). Other mutations associated to raltegravir resistance in HIV-1 were also observed in our HIV-2 population (V151I and D232N), along with several novel mutations previously unreported. Data retrieved from this study should help build a more robust HIV-2-specific algorithm for the genotypic interpretation of raltegravir resistance, and contribute to improve the clinical monitoring of HIV-2-infected patients.PLoS ONE 03/2014; 9(3):e92747. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0092747 · 3.53 Impact Factor
AIDS (London, England) 09/2014; 28(15):2329-2331. DOI:10.1097/QAD.0000000000000414 · 6.56 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Translocation of viral integrase (IN) into the nucleus is a critical precondition of integration during the life cycle of HIV, a causative agent of Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndromes (AIDS). As the first discovered cellular factor to interact with IN, Lens epithelium-derived growth factor (LEDGF/p75) plays an important role in the process of integration. Disruption of the LEDGF/p75-IN interaction has provided a great interest for anti-HIV agent discovery. In this work, we reported that one small molecular compound, 1,4-bis(5-(naphthalen-1-yl)thiophen-2-yl)naphthalene(Compound 15), potently inhibit the IN- LEDGF/p75 interaction and affect the HIV-1 IN nuclear distribution at 1μM. The putative binding mode of Compound 15 was constructed by a molecular docking simulation to provide structural insights into the ligand-binding mechanism. Compound 15 suppressed viral replication by measuring p24 antigen production in HIV-1IIIB acute infected C8166 cells with EC50 value of 11.19μM. Compound 15 might supply useful structural information for further anti-HIV agent discovery.Chemico-biological interactions 01/2014; DOI:10.1016/j.cbi.2014.01.011 · 2.98 Impact Factor