Molecular biomarkers validated previously in animal models are increasingly being studied in conjunction with traditional clinical endpoints in therapeutic trials.
We hypothesized that human kidneys would exhibit a brisk, gene-specific inflammatory response during ischemia reperfusion injury (IRI), which would be modified by anti-adhesive therapy. Forty deceased-donor kidneys were biopsied prior to implantation and ∼1 h after reperfusion during an intervention trial with the selectin antagonist YSPSL (recombinant P-selectin glycoprotein ligand Ig). Ten inflammatory genes were measured by RT-PCR and normalized to three housekeeping genes.
Pre-implantation kidney biopsies were already significantly inflamed relative to healthy tissue, with transcripts encoding IL-6, IL-8, and CD25 > 10-fold elevated. After reperfusion, IL-6 and IL-8 increased additional 60- and 120-fold (p < 0.05), while already elevated CD25-levels remained stable. Furthermore, transcripts encoding MCP-1, E-selectin, and TNFα were also induced significantly upon reperfusion (p < 0.0005). Systemic treatment of the recipient with YSPSL pre-reperfusion, with or without pre-implantation YSPSL flush of the donor organ, attenuated the post-reperfusion increase in MCP-1 and TGFβ (p < 0.05), E-selectin and hemoxygenase 1 transcripts (p < 0.1).
Our data in humans demonstrate a robust increase in inflammatory gene transcript levels during kidney transplantation IRI and reduction thereof by inhibition of leukocyte adhesion.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Accumulated to-date microarray data on ischemia reperfusion injury (IRI) of kidney represent a powerful source for identifying new targets and mechanisms of kidney IRI. In this study, we conducted a meta-analysis of gene expression profiles of kidney IRI in human, pig, rat, and mouse models, using a new scoring method to correct for the bias of overrepresented species. The gene expression profiles were obtained from the public repositories for 24 different models. After filtering against inclusion criteria 21 experimental settings were selected for meta-analysis and were represented by 11 rat models, 6 mouse models, and 2 models each for pig and human, with a total of 150 samples. Meta-analysis was conducted using expression-based genome-wide association study (eGWAS). The eGWAS results were corrected for a rodent species bias using a new weighted scoring algorithm, which favors genes with unidirectional change in expression in all tested species.
Our meta-analysis corrected for a species bias, identified 46 upregulated and 1 downregulated genes, of which 26 (55%) were known to be associated with kidney IRI or kidney transplantation, including LCN2, CCL2, CXCL1, HMOX1, ICAM1, ANXA1, and TIMP1, which justified our approach. Pathway analysis of our candidates identified "Acute renal failure panel" as the most implicated pathway, which further validates our new method. Among new IRI candidates were 10 novel (<5 published reports related to kidney IRI) and 11 new candidates (0 reports related to kidney IRI) including the most prominent candidates ANXA2, CLDN4, and TYROBP. The cross-species expression pattern of these genes allowed us to generate three workable hypotheses of kidney IRI, one of which was confirmed by an additional study.
Our first in the field kidney IRI meta-analysis of 150 microarray samples, corrected for a species bias, identified 10 novel and 11 new candidate genes. Moreover, our new meta-analysis correction method improved gene candidate selection by identifying genes that are model and species independent, as a result, function of these genes can be directly extrapolated to the disease state in human and facilitate translation of potential diagnostic or therapeutic properties of these candidates to the bedside.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The selectin antagonist known as recombinant P-selectin glycoprotein ligand IgG (rPSGL-Ig) blocks leukocyte adhesion and protects against transplantation ischemia reperfusion injury (IRI) in animal models. This randomized (1:1) single-center double-blind 47-patient phase 2 study with 6-month follow-up assessed rPSGL-Ig's safety and impact on early graft function at 1 mg/kg systemic dose with pretransplant allograft ex vivo treatment in deceased-donor liver transplant recipients. Safety was assessed in all patients, whereas efficacy was assessed in a prospectively defined per-protocol patient set (PP) by peak serum transaminase (TA) and bilirubin values, and normalization thereof. In PP patients, the incidence of poor early graft function (defined as peak TA >2500 U/L or bilirubin >10 mg/dL), average peak liver enzymes and bilirubin, normalization thereof and duration of primary and total hospitalization trended consistently lower in the rPSGL-Ig group compared to placebo. In patients with donor risk index above study-average, normalization of aspartate aminotransferase was significantly improved in the rPSGL-Ig group (p < 0.03). rPSGL-Ig treatment blunted postreperfusion induction versus placebo of IRI biomarker IP-10 (p < 0.1) and augmented cytoprotective IL-10 (p < 0.05). This is the first clinical trial of an adhesion molecule antagonist to demonstrate a beneficial effect on liver transplantation IRI and supported by therapeutic modulation of two hepatic IRI biomarkers.
American Journal of Transplantation 03/2011; 11(4):786-97. DOI:10.1111/j.1600-6143.2011.03441.x · 5.68 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: CD47 is a widely expressed cell surface receptor that serves as a counter-receptor for signal regulatory protein-α and as a receptor for the secreted matricellular protein thrombospondin-1. Thrombospondin-1 signaling through CD47 regulates cellular signaling pathways that control cell survival, growth, motility, mitochondrial biogenesis, arterial vasoactive responses to physiologic vasodilators and blood flow, and responsiveness to growth factors. Studies employing mice lacking either thrombospondin-1 or CD47 have revealed an important role for this receptor-ligand interaction in tissue responses to injury and stress. These null mice show enhanced recovery from soft tissue fixed ischemic injuries, ischemia reperfusion injuries, and radiation injuries. These studies have led to development of antisense strategies to locally or globally suppress CD47 gene expression. A translation-blocking CD47 morpholino improves tissue survival in skin flap and hindlimb fixed ischemia models, full thickness skin grafts, and a liver ischemia/reperfusion model of organ transplantation in mice. Furthermore, the benefits of morpholino treatment extend to aged mice and mice with dysregulated fat metabolism that characteristically exhibit impaired recovery from ischemic injuries. Activity of the morpholino was also demonstrated for treatment of ischemic injury in miniature pigs. Treatment with the CD47 morpholino protects mice from major effects of ionizing radiation including alopecia, deterioration of muscle function, soft tissue and cutaneous fibrosis, and loss of hematopoietic stem cells in bone marrow. Remarkably, the same treatment does not protect tumors but instead enhances their ablation by irradiation. We discuss prospects for further development of CD47 antisense therapeutics for clinical applications including reconstructive surgery, organ transplantation, angioplasty, and cancer.
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