Surgical treatment of chronic inflammatory bowel disease in children.
ABSTRACT Surgery for chronic inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is increasingly often necessary in children. This study aimed at assessing the results of these operations in order to facilitate adequate preoperative counseling. We reviewed patients treated from 1992 to 2009. The operations, complications and functional outcome were recorded. For those with preserved rectal defecation, continence (Koivusalo score) and quality of life (standardized questionnaire) were assessed in the long term. Eighty five of 192 patients had Crohn disease (CD), 107 of 192 had ulcerative colitis (UC), and 3 of 192 had indeterminate colitis (IC). 12 of 85 CD patients (15%) aged 14 (12-19) years required 13 resections, 1 stricturoplasty, 1 transplantation and 6 other operations including 3 permanent enterostomies for anorectal involvement. Removal of the involved bowel led to significant improvement of nutritional status, growth and quality of life. The transplanted patient had a striking recovery but eventually died 1 year later of unrelated complications. 29 of 107 UC patients (26%) aged 11 (2-15) years required 87 operations. Nine had emergency colectomy for toxic megacolon (3, one death) or severe hemorrhage (6). 28 had restorative proctocolectomy and ileoanostomy (RPCIA) without (16) or with (12) J-pouch under protective ileostomy. Complications were frequent (40%). Permanent ileostomy was required in five children (17%). Twelve months postoperatively, RPCIA patients had 6.5 (2-13) stools/day; all were continent during daytime, and 25% have nocturnal leaks. Mean Koivusalo score (5-12) was 8.8 ± 2. Quality of life was good in all. All attended normal school and 7 the university, 4 work and 60% of those older than 18 years have sexual partners. Three of 107 children treated as UC with RPCIA had ultimately IC (3%) and were permanently diverted. The nature of IBD involves frustrating surgery. However, it may change life for CD patients and provide a reasonably good quality of life for UC after the first year. Pediatric surgeons should be able to provide adequate preoperative counseling to patients and families.