Specific Btk inhibition suppresses B cell- and myeloid cell-mediated arthritis.
ABSTRACT Bruton's tyrosine kinase (Btk) is a therapeutic target for rheumatoid arthritis, but the cellular and molecular mechanisms by which Btk mediates inflammation are poorly understood. Here we describe the discovery of CGI1746, a small-molecule Btk inhibitor chemotype with a new binding mode that stabilizes an inactive nonphosphorylated enzyme conformation. CGI1746 has exquisite selectivity for Btk and inhibits both auto- and transphosphorylation steps necessary for enzyme activation. Using CGI1746, we demonstrate that Btk regulates inflammatory arthritis by two distinct mechanisms. CGI1746 blocks B cell receptor-dependent B cell proliferation and in prophylactic regimens reduces autoantibody levels in collagen-induced arthritis. In macrophages, Btk inhibition abolishes FcγRIII-induced TNFα, IL-1β and IL-6 production. Accordingly, in myeloid- and FcγR-dependent autoantibody-induced arthritis, CGI1746 decreases cytokine levels within joints and ameliorates disease. These results provide new understanding of the function of Btk in both B cell- or myeloid cell-driven disease processes and provide a compelling rationale for targeting Btk in rheumatoid arthritis.
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ABSTRACT: Bruton's tyrosine kinase (Btk) is encoded by the gene that when mutated causes the primary immunodeficiency disease X-linked agammaglobulinemia (XLA) in humans and X-linked immunodeficiency (Xid) in mice. Btk is a member of the Tec family of protein tyrosine kinases (PTKs) and plays a vital, but diverse, modulatory role in many cellular processes. Mutations affecting Btk block B-lymphocyte development. Btk is conserved among species, and in this review, we present the sequence of the full-length rat Btk and find it to be analogous to the mouse Btk sequence. We have also analyzed the wealth of information compiled in the mutation database for XLA (BTKbase), representing 554 unique molecular events in 823 families and demonstrate that only selected amino acids are sensitive to replacement (P < 0.001). Although genotype-phenotype correlations have not been established in XLA, based on these findings, we hypothesize that this relationship indeed exists. Using short interfering-RNA technology, we have previously generated active constructs downregulating Btk expression. However, application of recently established guidelines to enhance or decrease the activity was not successful, demonstrating the importance of the primary sequence. We also review the outcome of expression profiling, comparing B lymphocytes from XLA-, Xid-, and Btk-knockout (KO) donors to healthy controls. Finally, in spite of a few genes differing in expression between Xid- and Btk-KO mice, in vivo competition between cells expressing either mutation shows that there is no selective survival advantage of cells carrying one genetic defect over the other. We conclusively demonstrate that for the R28C-missense mutant (Xid), there is no biologically relevant residual activity or any dominant negative effect versus other proteins.Immunological Reviews 03/2005; 203:200-15. · 12.16 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Anti-perinuclear factor and anti-keratin antibodies have long been known to be specifically associated with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). They were first demonstrated to target various forms of (pro)filaggrin, a protein of stratified epithelia. Then, they were found to belong to a single family of autoantibodies targeting proteins that bear peptidic epitopes centered by a citrullyl residue: the anti-citrullinated protein autoantibodies (ACPA). The main targets of ACPA in the synovial tissue were demonstrated to be citrullinated forms of the a- and beta-chains of fibrin. A chronic conflict between locally produced ACPA and deposits of citrullinated fibrin is probably responsible for self-maintaining of RA synovial inflammation. Various tests for the detection of ACPA have been developed: recent ELISAs confirm their high diagnostic specificity and improve their diagnostic sensitivity. Since ACPA appear very early in the course of the disease, their detection is of major interest to identify RA among recent arthritides. Moreover, their prognostic value may lead to start early 'aggressive' treatments to prevent irreversible joint damage.Autoimmunity 03/2005; 38(1):17-24. · 2.77 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The majority of kinase inhibitors that have been developed so far--known as type I inhibitors--target the ATP binding site of the kinase in its active conformation, in which the activation loop is phosphorylated. Recently, crystal structures of inhibitors such as imatinib (STI571), BIRB796 and sorafenib (BAY43-9006)--known as type II inhibitors--have revealed a new binding mode that exploits an additional binding site immediately adjacent to the region occupied by ATP. This pocket is made accessible by an activation-loop rearrangement that is characteristic of kinases in an inactive conformation. Here, we present a structural analysis of binding modes of known human type II inhibitors and demonstrate that they conform to a pharmacophore model that is currently being used to design a new generation of kinase inhibitors.Nature Chemical Biology 08/2006; 2(7):358-64. · 12.95 Impact Factor