Social cognition in psychosis: Multidimensional structure, clinical correlates, and relationship with functional outcome

Department of Psychiatry and Biobehavioral Sciences, Geffen School of Medicine at University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095-6968, USA.
Schizophrenia Research (Impact Factor: 3.92). 02/2011; 125(2-3):143-51. DOI: 10.1016/j.schres.2010.11.007
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Social cognitive impairments are common, detectable across a wide range of tasks, and appear to play a key role in explaining poor outcome in schizophrenia and related psychotic disorders. However, little is known about the underlying factor structure of social cognition in people with psychotic disorders due to a lack of exploratory factor analyses using a relatively comprehensive social cognitive assessment battery. In a sample of 85 outpatients with psychosis, we examined the factor structure and clinical/functional correlates of eight indexes derived from five social cognition tasks that span the domains of emotional processing, social perception, attributional style, and Theory of Mind. Exploratory factor analysis revealed three factors with relatively low inter-correlations that explained a total of 54% of the variance: (1) Hostile attributional style, (2) Lower-level social cue detection, and (3) Higher-level inferential and regulatory processes. None of the factors showed significant correlations with negative symptoms. Factor 1 significantly correlated with clinical symptoms (positive, depression-anxiety, agitation) but not functional outcome, whereas Factors 2 and 3 significantly correlated with functional outcome (functional capacity and real-world social and work functioning) but not clinical symptoms. Furthermore, Factor 2 accounted for unique incremental variance in functional capacity, above and beyond non-social neurocognition (measured with MATRICS Consensus Cognitive Battery) and negative symptoms. Results suggest that multiple separable dimensions of social cognition can be identified in psychosis, and these factors show distinct patterns of correlation with clinical features and functional outcome.

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    • "Schizophrenia has recently been conceptualized as a neurodevelopmental disorder (Rapoport et al. 2012) with several symptom domains including cognitive deficits as essential factors correlated with functional outcome (Keefe 2008). Social cognition deficits present in schizophrenia are related to non-social cognition, but have a different neurobiological basis (Mancuso et al. 2011). Disorders of self-recognition and recognition of others may be a result of combination of different neuropathological and psychological factors with subsequent disruption of integration of the intero-self system with the external environment (Feinberg 2013). "
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    ABSTRACT: Self-face recognition is one of the most distinctive features in human beings. Disturbances of self-face recognition in people with schizophrenia may reflect the underlying neurobiological and psychological factors of the disorder. Our aim was to establish whether differences in preference for the similarity to the true self-face appearance could be found between patients with schizophrenia and a matched control group. 14 right-handed patients with schizophrenia and 14 control subjects were enrolled. Subjects were photographed, the pictures were converted to black and white, halved vertically, and four faces were used: normal face (NF), mirrored face (MF), face composed from two left halves of the face (LLF) and from two right halves of face (RRF). Four pairs of faces were exposed to subjects and they chose which they felt was closest to their true appearance. No significant differences for preference were found between the patients and control subjects. Post-hoc analysis of the pooled groups showed a significant difference for preference of NF vs. RRF (20 vs. 8 probands; χ2=5.14, df=1, p<0.05). 18 subjects from the two groups did not change the right-left visual field focus through all four exposures. The absence of significant differences for preference for true self-image between schizophrenia patients and control subjects might show that self-face recognition is of little importance from the evolutionary perspective. Additional measurements such as eye-tracking control and random multiple projections of the same pairs of faces would contribute to a more thorough interpretation of the findings in future studies of similar design.
    Neuro endocrinology letters 11/2014; 35(6):497-502. · 0.80 Impact Factor
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    • "No statistical significance was showed for CYP-1020 as a procognitive enhancer. However, it seemed to be superior to risperidone in a measure of social cognition included in the MCCB battery (MSCEIT): an independent factor from the rest of cognitive domains (Mancuso et al., 2011). A new approach for the treatment of schizophrenia (ITI-007) was presented by Dr. Kimberly E. Vanover (Intra-celullar Therapies Inc., New York, USA). "
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    ABSTRACT: The 4th Schizophrenia International Research Society Conference was held in Florence, Italy, April 5–9, 2014 and this year had as its emphasis, “Fostering Collaboration in Schizophrenia Research”. Student travel awardees served as rapporteurs for each oral session, summarized the important contributions of each session and then each report was integrated into a final summary of data discussed at the entire conference by topic. It is hoped that by combining data from different presentations, patterns of interest will emerge and thus lead to new progress for the future.In addition, the following report provides an overview of the conference for those who were present, but could not participate in all sessions, and those who did not have the opportunity to attend, but who would be interested in an update on current investigations ongoing in the field of schizophrenia research.
    Schizophrenia Research 10/2014; DOI:10.1016/j.schres.2014.08.032 · 3.92 Impact Factor
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    • "Based on our and others' work (Mancuso et al., 2011; McDonald et al., 2006; Shany-Ur et al., 2012; Sparks et al., 2010), we analyzed the following components: (1) automatic social cognition — measuring the ability to read emotional cues in voices, faces, and body language (composed of RMET; EET; and SSR scores); (2) controlled social cognition — measuring comprehension of indirectly expressed emotions, thoughts, intentions , and based on complex integration of social contextual information in dialog and interpersonal behavior (composed of SI-E ''think visual''; ''think verbal''; ''do''; and ''feel'' items, reflecting a composite score previously used in cognitively impaired patients(Shany-Ur et al., 2012)); and (3) control task — composed of SIN scores. Cronbach's Alpha showed inter-task convergence was 0.69 for automatic social cognition and 0.77 for controlled social cognition, suggesting that the organization of the tasks into these subcomponents was meaningful. "
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    ABSTRACT: Background Individuals with schizophrenia have functionally significant deficits in automatic and controlled social cognition, but no currently available pharmacologic treatments reduce these deficits. The neuropeptide oxytocin has multiple prosocial effects when administered intranasally in humans and there is growing interest in its therapeutic potential in schizophrenia. Methods We administered 40 IU of oxytocin and saline placebo intranasally to 29 male subjects with schizophrenia and 31 age-matched, healthy controls in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over study. Social cognition was assessed with The Awareness of Social Inference Test (TASIT) and the Reading the Mind in the Eyes Test (RMET). We examined the effects of oxytocin administration on automatic social cognition (the ability to rapidly interpret and understand emotional cues from the voice, face, and body); controlled social cognition (the ability to comprehend indirectly expressed emotions, thoughts, and intentions through complex deliberations over longer time periods); and a control task (the ability to comprehend truthful dialog and perform general task procedures) in individuals with and without schizophrenia using mixed factorial analysis of variance models. Results Patients with schizophrenia showed significant impairments in automatic and controlled social cognition compared to healthy controls, and administration of oxytocin significantly improved their controlled, but not automatic, social cognition, F(1, 58) = 8.75; p = 0.004. Conversely, oxytocin administration had limited effects on social cognition in healthy participants. Patients and controls performed equally well and there were no effects of oxytocin administration on the control task. Discussion Intact social cognitive abilities are associated with better functional outcomes in individuals with schizophrenia. Our data highlight the potentially complex effects of oxytocin on some but not all aspects of social cognition, and support the exploration of intranasal oxytocin as a potential adjunct treatment to improve controlled social cognition in schizophrenia.
    Psychoneuroendocrinology 09/2014; 47. DOI:10.1016/j.psyneuen.2014.04.024 · 4.94 Impact Factor
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