Sleep duration and cardiometabolic risk: a review of the epidemiologic evidence.

Section of Pulmonary/Critical Care, Department of Medicine, University of Chicago, 5841 S Maryland Ave MC 6076, Chicago, IL 60622, USA.
Best Practice & Research: Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism (Impact Factor: 4.91). 10/2010; 24(5):731-43. DOI: 10.1016/j.beem.2010.07.001
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Laboratory studies have found that short-term sleep restriction is associated with impairments in glucose metabolism, appetite regulation and blood pressure regulation. This chapter reviews the epidemiologic evidence for an association between habitual sleep duration and quality and risk of cardiometabolic diseases including obesity, diabetes and hypertension. Multiple studies observed a cross-sectional association between short sleep duration (generally <6 h per night) and increased body mass index or obesity, prevalent diabetes and prevalent hypertension. Many studies also reported an association between self-reported long sleep duration (generally >8 h per night) and cardiometabolic disease. There have been a few prospective studies and several, but not all, have found an association between short sleep and incident diabetes, hypertension and markers of cardiovascular disease. Future prospective epidemiologic studies need to include objective measures of sleep, and intervention studies are needed in order to establish a causal link between impaired or insufficient sleep and cardiometabolic disease risk.

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    ABSTRACT: A significant U-shaped association between sleep duration and several morbidity (obesity, diabetes or cardiovascular disease) and mortality risks has been regularly reported. However, although the physiological pathways and risks associated with "too short sleep" (<5 hours/day) have been well demonstrated, little is known about "too much sleeping".
    PLoS ONE 09/2014; 9(9):e106950. · 3.53 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Visual impairment (VI) is associated with increased mortality and health factors such as depression and cardiovascular disease. Epidemiologic studies consistently show associations between sleep duration with adverse health outcomes, but these have not systematically considered the influence of VI. The aim of this study was to ascertain the independent association between VI and sleep duration using the National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) data. We also examined whether race/ethnicity influenced these associations independently of sociodemographic and medical characteristics. Methods: Our analysis was based on the 2009 NHIS, providing valid sleep and vision data for 29,815 participants. The NHIS is a cross-sectional household interview survey utilizing a multistage area probability design. Trained personnel from the US census bureau gathered data during face-to-face interview and obtained socio-demographic, self-reported habitual sleep duration and physician-diagnosed chronic conditions. Results: The mean age of the sample was 48 years and 56% were female. Short sleep and long sleep durations were reported by 49% and 23% of the participants, respectively. Visual impairment was observed in 10%. Multivariate-adjusted logistic regression models showed significant associations between VI and short sleep (OR = 1.6, 95% CI = 1.5-1.9 and long sleep durations (OR = 1.6, 95% CI = 1.3-1.9). These associations persisted in multivariate models stratified by race-ethnic groups. Conclusion: Visual impairment was associated with both short and long sleep durations. Analysis of epidemiologic sleep data should consider visual impairment as an important factor likely to influence the amount of sleep experienced habitually.
    BMC Ophthalmology 10/2014; 14:115. · 1.08 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Objective To examine the association between sleep duration and cardiometabolic risk factors among individuals with recently diagnosed type 2 diabetes (n=391). Methods Sleep duration was derived using a combination of questionnaire and objective heart rate and movement sensing in the UK ADDITION-Plus study (2002-2007). Adjusted means were estimated for individual cardiometabolic risk factors and clustered cardiometabolic risk (CCMR) by five categories of sleep duration. Results We observed a J-shaped association between sleep duration and CCMR – individuals sleeping 7-<8 hours had a significantly better CCMR profile than those sleeping ≥9 hours. Independent of physical activity and sedentary time, individuals sleeping 7-<8 hours had lower triacylglycerol (0.62 mmol/l [0.29, 1.06]) and higher HDL-cholesterol levels (0.23 mmol/l [0.16, 0.30]) compared with those sleeping ≥9 hours, and a lower waist circumference (7.87 cm [6.06, 9.68]) and BMI (3.47 kg/m2 [2.69, 4.25]) than those sleeping <6 hours. Although sleeping 7-<8 hours was associated with lower levels of systolic- and diastolic- blood pressure, HbA1c, total cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol, these associations were not statistically significant. Conclusions Sleep duration has a J-shaped association with CCMR in individuals with diabetes, independent of potential confounding. Health promotion interventions might highlight the importance of adequate sleep in this high risk population.
    Sleep Medicine 10/2014; · 3.10 Impact Factor

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