Article

Does the Mediterranean diet predict longevity in the elderly? A Swedish perspective

Public Health Epidemiology Unit, Department of Public Health and Community Medicine, University of Gothenburg, Sahlgrenska Academy, Göteborg, Sweden.
Age (Impact Factor: 3.45). 11/2010; 33(3):439-50. DOI: 10.1007/s11357-010-9193-1
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Dietary pattern analysis represents a useful improvement in the investigation of diet and health relationships. Particularly, the Mediterranean diet pattern has been associated with reduced mortality risk in several studies involving both younger and elderly population groups. In this research, relationships between dietary macronutrient composition, as well as the Mediterranean diet, and total mortality were assessed in 1,037 seventy-year-old subjects (540 females) information. Diet macronutrient composition was not associated with mortality, while a refined version of the modified Mediterranean diet index showed a significant inverse association (HR=0.93, 95% CI: 0.89; 0.98). As expected, inactive subjects, smokers and those with a higher waist circumference had a higher mortality, while a reduced risk characterized married and more educated people. Sensitivity analyses (which confirmed our results) consisted of: exclusion of one food group at a time in the Mediterranean diet index, exclusion of early deaths, censoring at fixed follow-up time, adjusting for activities of daily living and main cardiovascular risk factors including weight/waist circumference changes at follow up. In conclusion, we can reasonably state that a higher adherence to a Mediterranean diet pattern, especially by consuming wholegrain cereals, foods rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids, and a limited amount of alcohol, predicts increased longevity in the elderly.

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Available from: Valter Sundh, Aug 17, 2015
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    • "In fact, participants in the upper baseline quartiles of MDP followed a diet rich in plant-based foods and poor in animal foods, and had the lowest risk of mortality. Third, the available evidence about olive oil, suggests that it plays a role in the prevention of coronary heart disease, and cancer, and may influence survival [1] [2] [21] [22] [25]. Besides, olive oil and particularly EVOO improves the lipid profile and has potent antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties [27] [28]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Background & aims There is little evidence on post hoc-derived dietary patterns (DP) and all-cause mortality in Southern-European populations. Furthermore, the potential effect modification of a DP by a nutritional intervention has not been sufficiently assessed. We assessed the association between a posteriori defined baseline major DP and total mortality or cardiovascular events within each of the three arms of a large primary prevention trial (PREDIMED) where participants were randomized to two active interventions with Mediterranean-type diets or to a control group (allocated to a low-fat diet). Design We followed-up 7216 participants for a median of 4.3 years. A validated 137-item food-frequency questionnaire was administered. Baseline DP were ascertained through factor analysis based on 34 predefined groups. Cox regression models were used to estimate multivariable-adjusted hazard ratios (HR) for cardiovascular disease (CVD) or mortality across quartiles of DP within each of the three arms of the trial. Results We identified two major baseline DP: the first DP was rich in red and processed meats, alcohol, refined grains and whole dairy products and was labeled Western dietary pattern (WDP). The second DP corresponded to a “Mediterranean-type” dietary pattern (MDP). During follow-up, 328 participants died. After controlling for potential confounders, higher baseline adherence to the MDP was associated with lower risk of CVD (adjusted HR for fourth vs. first quartile: 0.52; 95% CI (Confidence Interval): 0.36, 0.74; p-trend <0.001) and all-cause mortality (adjusted HR: 0.53; 95% CI: 0.38, 0.75; p-trend <0.001), regardless of the allocated arm of the trial. An increasing mortality rate was found across increasing quartiles of the WDP in the control group (allocated to a low-fat diet), though the linear trend was not statistically significant (p = 0.098). Conclusions Higher adherence to an empirically-derived MDP at baseline was associated with a reduced risk of CVD and mortality in the PREDIMED trial regardless of the allocated arm. The WDP was not associated with higher risk of mortality or cardiovascular events.
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    • "Greater adherence to a Mediterranean-like dietary pattern is associated with a significant improvement in health status [1]. It may reduce the metabolic syndrome risk [2], major chronic disease morbidity [3] [4] and mortality [5] as well as total mortality [6] [7]. An inverse association between this pattern and overweight, particularly in childhood, could have short-and long-term health implications, but only few papers describe its relationship with childrens' weight status , BMI, waist circumference or waist-to-height ratio [8e11]. "
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