The effect of traditional Japanese medicine (Kampo) on gastrointestinal function
ABSTRACT Traditional Japanese medicine (Kampo) is used to treat various disorders of the gastrointestinal tract in Japan, where it is fully integrated into the modern healthcare system. Recently, scientific research on herbal medicine in Japan has been reported in English journals. The objective of the current review is to introduce two traditional Japanese medicines and to provide evidenced-based information regarding their use. Daikenchuto, which consists of three different herbs, is the most frequently prescribed traditional Japanese medicine in Japan. Daikenchuto stimulates gastrointestinal motility though a neural reflex involving presynaptic cholinergic and 5-HT3 receptors. Daikenchuto improves postoperative bowel motility and postoperative ileus. Furthermore, it is reported to cause an increase in gastrointestinal hormones (motilin, vasoactive intestinal peptide, and calcitonin gene-related peptide) and intestinal blood flow. Rikkunshito, a traditional Japanese medicine consisting of eight herbs, is thought to stimulate gastrointestinal motility and ghrelin secretion. Rikkunshito is effective for improving the symptoms of functional dyspepsia, gastroesophageal reflux disease, and cisplatin-induced anorexia and vomiting. Traditional Japanese medicine has the potential to be used successfully in the treatment of gastrointestinal disorders. Details regarding the physiological and clinical effects of traditional Japanese medicine must be further examined in order to become more widely accepted in other countries.
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ABSTRACT: This review outlines the new developments on chitosan-based bioapplications. Over the last decade, functional biomaterials research has developed new drug delivery systems and improved scaffolds for regenerative medicine that is currently one of the most rapidly growing fields in the life sciences. The aim is to restore or replace damaged body parts or lost organs by transplanting supportive scaffolds with appropriate cells that in combination with biomolecules generate new tissue. This is a highly interdisciplinary field that encompasses polymer synthesis and modification, cell culturing, gene therapy, stem cell research, therapeutic cloning and tissue engineering. In this regard, chitosan, as a biopolymer derived macromolecular compound, has a major involvement. Chitosan is a polyelectrolyte with reactive functional groups, gel-forming capability, high adsorption capacity and biodegradability. In addition, it is innately biocompatible and non-toxic to living tissues as well as having antibacterial, antifungal and antitumor activity. These features highlight the suitability and extensive applications that chitosan has in medicine. Micro/nanoparticles and hydrogels are widely used in the design of chitosan-based therapeuticsystems. The chemical structure and relevant biological properties of chitosan for regenerative medicine have been summarized as well as the methods for the preparation of controlled drug release devices and their applications.Progress in Polymer Science 08/2011; 36(8):981-1014. DOI:10.1016/j.progpolymsci.2011.02.001 · 26.85 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Ghrelin is a peptide hormone predominantly produced by endocrine cells in the oxyntic mucosa of the stomach and is an endogenous ligand for the growth hormone secretagogue receptor. Ghrelin plays an important role in regulating appetite, food intake, and energy metabolism. We investigated the correlation between clinicopathologic factors and plasma ghrelin concentration before and after esophagectomy with gastric tube reconstruction for esophageal cancer treatment. The study group comprised 25 patients (22 men, three women, age range 46-78 y) with esophageal cancer who underwent esophagectomy with gastric tube reconstruction between 1999 and 2007. Blood samples were collected before and three times after the operation. Plasma concentrations of ghrelin were determined using a sandwich-type enzyme immunoassay kit. Plasma ghrelin concentrations were significantly decreased to 38.7% of the preoperative concentration at postoperative d 7. Plasma ghrelin concentrations recovered slightly over 6-24 mo postoperatively. After 36 mo or longer, ghrelin concentrations had returned to preoperative levels. There was no relationship between ghrelin concentrations and gender, location of tumor, tumor stage, operative procedure, and reconstruction route at each time point. There was a significant relationship between the decrease in body mass index and decrease in plasma ghrelin in patients at 6-24 mo after esophagectomy (P < 0.01). Plasma ghrelin concentrations decrease on a temporary basis after esophagectomy with gastric tube reconstruction and are associated with body weight loss after surgery.Journal of Surgical Research 10/2011; 176(1):74-8. DOI:10.1016/j.jss.2011.09.016 · 2.12 Impact Factor
Article: Rikkunshito as a Ghrelin Enhancer[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Rikkunshito is a kampo herbal medicine which is widely used in Japan for the treatment of the upper gastrointestinal symptoms of patients with functional dyspepsia, gastroesophageal reflux disease, dyspeptic symptoms of postgastrointestinal surgery patients, and chemotherapy-induced dyspepsia in cancer patients. Recently, very unique characteristics of rikkunshito have been unveiled; oral administration of rikkunshito potentiates orexigenic action of ghrelin through several different mechanisms. In addition, several lines of evidence obtained from both animal and human studies indicate that rikkunshito can be an attractive and promising therapeutic option for the anorectic conditions including cisplatin-induced dyspepsia, anorexia of aging, stress-induced hypophagia, and cancer cachexia-anorexia syndrome. In this chapter, we highlight the orexigenic effect of rikkunshito with a special focus on its interaction with ghrelin signaling system.Methods in enzymology 01/2012; 514:333-51. DOI:10.1016/B978-0-12-381272-8.00021-0 · 2.19 Impact Factor