A search for biomarkers as diagnostic tools for food allergy: a pilot study in peanut-allergic patients.
ABSTRACT The impact of peanut allergy is large and accidental ingestion of peanut can lead to severe reactions. Currently used diagnostic tests, such as skin prick tests (SPT) and determination of specific immunoglobulins (IgE) have, however, limited sensitivity and specificity. Therefore, new tools have to be developed to improve the accuracy of the diagnostic work-up of food-allergic patients. Comprehensive metabolite analysis may provide biomarkers for diagnosing food allergy as metabolite levels reflect actual physiological conditions. We investigated whether metabolites can be found that discriminate between peanut-allergic patients and non-peanut-allergic subjects. Such metabolites may be used for future diagnostic purposes.
Plasma and saliva samples were obtained from 23 participants (12 peanut allergic and 11 peanut tolerant) prior to and after a peanut challenge and measured with (1)H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy with subsequent multivariate data analysis.
Clear differences were observed between NMR spectra of peanut-allergic and peanut-tolerant subjects in plasma as well as saliva. Allergic patients already showed aberrant metabolite levels prior to peanut ingestion, thus before the onset of allergic reactions.
This pilot study shows that aberrant metabolite levels as determined by NMR in combination with multivariate statistics may serve as novel biomarkers for food allergy.
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ABSTRACT: Challenge tests are used to assess the resilience of human beings to perturbations by analyzing responses to detect functional abnormalities. Well known examples are allergy tests and glucose tolerance tests. Increasingly, metabolomics analysis of blood or serum samples is used to analyze the biological response of the individual to these challenges. The information content of such metabolomics challenge test data involves both the disturbance and restoration of homeostasis on a metabolic level and is thus inherently different from the analysis of steady state data. It opens doors to study the variation of resilience between individuals beyond the classical biomarkers; preferably in terms of underlying biological processes. We review challenge tests in which metabolomics was used to analyze the biological response. Specifically, we describe strategies to perform statistical analyses on the responses and we will show some examples of these strategies applied to a postprandial challenge that was used to study a diet with anti-inflammatory properties. Finally we discuss open issues and give recommendation for further research.Metabolomics 06/2014; 11(1). DOI:10.1007/s11306-014-0673-7 · 3.97 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Peanuts are one of the most relevant foods implicated in IgE-mediated adverse reactions in pediatric population. This study aimed to evaluate the pattern of sensitization towards five peanut allergenic components (rAra h 1, 2, 3, 8 and 9) in a population of Italian children and adolescents with specific IgE (sIgE) to peanut. rAra h 9 was the main allergen implicated in peanut sensitization (58%), followed by rAra h 8 (35%), rAra h 2 (27%), rAra h 3 (23%) and rAra h 1 (12.5%). rAra h 1, 2, and 3 were the main allergenic components in young children: 8/13 (62%) between 2 and 5 years, 8/23 (35%) between 6 and 11 years, and 3/12 (25%) between 1 and 16 years. No differences were found among the levels of sIgE towards rAra h 1, 2, 3, and 9 in the three groups; in contrast, the levels of sIgE against rAra h 8 showed an increasing trend according to age. In conclusion rAra h 1, 2, and 3 were the prevalent sensitizing allergens during the first years of life in Italian patients with sIgE to peanuts ("genuine" allergy); in contrast rAra h 9 and 8 were mainly involved in school-age children and adolescents with pollen allergy ("secondary" sensitization).11/2013; 2013:170452. DOI:10.1155/2013/170452
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ABSTRACT: Peanut allergy prevalence has increased in developed countries over the last few decades in the frame of the allergy epidemics, currently affecting 1-2% of children. While less frequent in developing countries, its prevalence is rising as these countries adopt a more westernized lifestyle. There is no curative treatment for peanut allergy at present so patient management relies on peanut avoidance, which requires an accurate diagnosis. Recent progress in peanut allergy diagnosis was made with the introduction of component resolved diagnosis that allows the assessment of IgE specific to individual peanut allergens. Component-resolved diagnosis needs to be interpreted in the context of clinical data but overall increases the diagnostic accuracy, as described in the typical cases that we present. Novel diagnostic tools have been proposed recently, such as the basophil activation test, mRNA expression and resonance magnetic evaluation of biomarkers.Expert Review of Molecular Diagnostics 11/2012; 12(8):879-91. DOI:10.1586/erm.12.74 · 4.27 Impact Factor