Long-term post-pneumonectomy pulmonary adaptation following all-trans-retinoic acid supplementation.
ABSTRACT In adult dogs following right pneumonectomy (PNX) and receiving all-trans-retinoic acid (RA) supplementation for 4 mo, we found modestly enhanced alveolar-capillary growth in the remaining lung without enhanced resting lung function (J Appl Physiol 96: 1080-1089 and 96: 1090-1096, 2004). Since alveolar remodeling progresses beyond this period and the lipid-soluble RA continues to be released from tissue stores, we hypothesized that RA supplementation may exert additional long-term effects. To examine this issue, adult male litter-matched foxhounds underwent right PNX followed by RA supplementation (2 mg/kg po 4 days/wk, n = 6) or placebo (n = 4) for 4 mo. Cardiopulmonary function was measured at rest and during exercise at 4 and 20 mo post-PNX. The remaining lung was fixed under a constant airway pressure for morphometric analysis. Comparing RA treatment to placebo controls, there were no differences in aerobic capacity, cardiopulmonary function, or lung volume at rest or exercise. Alveolar-capillary basal lamina thickness and mean harmonic thickness of air-blood diffusion barrier were 23-29% higher. The prevalence of double-capillary profiles remained 82% higher. Absolute volumes of septal interstitium, collagen fibers, cells, and matrix were 32% higher; the relative volumes of other septal components and alveolar-capillary surface areas expressed as ratios to control values were up to 24% higher. Thus RA supplementation following right PNX modestly and persistently enhanced long-term alveolar-capillary structural dimensions, especially the deposition of interstitial and connective tissue elements, in such a way that caused a net increase in barrier resistance to diffusion without improving lung mechanics or gas exchange.
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ABSTRACT: Maximal exercise performance was evaluated in four adult foxhounds after right pneumonectomy (removal of 58% of lung) and compared with that in seven sham-operated control dogs 6 mo after surgery. Maximal O2 uptake (ml O2.min-1.kg-1) was 142.9 +/- 1.9 in the sham group and 123.0 +/- 3.8 in the pneumonectomy group, a reduction of 14% (P less than 0.001). Maximal stroke volume (ml/kg) was 2.59 +/- 0.10 in the sham group and 1.99 +/- 0.05 in the pneumonectomy group, a reduction of 23% (P less than 0.005). Lung diffusing capacity (DL(CO)) (ml.min-1.Torr-1.kg-1) reached 2.27 +/- 0.08 in the combined lungs of the sham group and 1.67 +/- 0.07 in the remaining lung of the pneumonectomy group (P less than 0.001). In the pneumonectomy group, DL(CO) of the left lung was 76% greater than that in the left lung of controls. Blood lactate concentration and hematocrit were significantly higher at exercise in the pneumonectomy group. We conclude that, in dogs after resection of 58% of lung, O2 uptake, cardiac output, stroke volume, and DL(CO) at maximal exercise were restricted. However, the magnitude of overall impairment was surprisingly small, indicating a remarkable ability to compensate for the loss of one lung. This compensation was achieved through the recruitment of reserves in DL(CO) in the remaining lung, the development of exercise-induced polycythemia, and the maintenance of a relatively large stroke volume in the face of an increased pulmonary vascular resistance.Journal of Applied Physiology 08/1992; 73(1):362-7. · 3.75 Impact Factor