Intracranial Large Vessel Occlusion as a Predictor of Decline in Functional Status After Transient Ischemic Attack
ABSTRACT clinical scores help predict outcome after transient ischemic attack (TIA), and imaging studies may improve the accuracy of predictions. Intracranial large vessel occlusion (LVO) predicts poor outcome after stroke, but the natural history of symptomatic intracranial LVO in patients with TIA is unknown.
we studied patients presenting with TIA in the STOP Stroke Study, a prospective imaging-based study of stroke outcomes. All patients underwent brain CTA. If an intracranial vascular occlusion was found in an appropriate territory to account for clinical findings, then it was judged to be a symptomatic LVO. Baseline characteristics, follow-up events, and outcomes were collected. Characteristics of patients with and without LVO were compared using χ(2) and t tests. Predictors of LVO were analyzed by univariate and multivariate analysis. LVO was assessed as a predictor of asymptomatic outcome (modified Rankin scale [mRS] score, 0), poor outcome (mRS score ≤ 3), and increase in mRS score over the study period.
of 97 patients with TIA, 13 (13%) had symptomatic intracranial LVO. Patients with LVO had higher baseline NIHSS on emergency department arrival, which was an independent predictor of LVO (OR, 1.15 per point; 95% CI, 1.02-1.29; P=0.02). Patients with LVO were more likely to have an increase in mRS score during the 90-day follow-up (P=0.03). LVO independently predicted an increase in mRS score (OR, 4.76; 95% CI, 1.23-18.43; P=0.02) and was a borderline predictor of poor outcome (mRS score ≥ 3; OR, 5.07; 95% CI, 0.92-28.03; P=0.06).
LVO is found in >1 in 10 patients presenting with TIA and predicts a decline in functional status, likely attributable to new brain ischemia.
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ABSTRACT: Stroke is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Up to 80% of ischemic stroke patients may initially present with minor symptoms. Minor stroke and transient ischemic attack patients are typically treated conservatively with antiplatelet agents and general vascular prevention strategies. Yet a high proportion develop recurrent stroke or progression of stroke and up to one in four of these patients are disabled or dead at follow-up. Minor or rapidly improving symptoms are the top reasons for withholding thrombolytic therapy to time-eligible stroke patients as they are believed to be ‘too good to treat’. The benefits and risks of treating mild ischemic strokes are still unclear. The increasing use of computed tomography angiography and its ability to identify both proximal and distal intracranial occlusions may change this equation. In this review, we discuss the diagnosis and prognosis of mild strokes, the role of neurovascular imaging in treatment decision making, experience with thrombolysis in this patient population, and propose directions for future studies.International Journal of Stroke 04/2015; 10(3). DOI:10.1111/ijs.12426 · 4.03 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Short course of dual antiplatelet therapy for early secondary prevention is a promising treatment for patients with minor stroke or transient ischemic attack at high risk of recurrence. METHODS: We examined the efficacy and safety of dual antiplatelets in patients with transient ischemic attack or minor stroke, defined as National Institute of Health Stroke Scale scores 0-3, in a subgroup analysis of Clopidogrel plus aspirin versus Aspirin alone for Reducing embolization in patients with acute symptomatic cerebral or carotid artery stenosis (CLAIR) study. Microembolic signals on transcranial Doppler monitoring was used as surrogate marker for recurrent stroke risk. Patients with ≥1 microembolic signals at baseline were randomized to receive dual therapy (aspirin 75-160 mg daily and clopidogrel 300 mg day 1 then 75 mg daily) or monotherapy (aspirin 75-160 mg daily) for seven-days. RESULTS: Sixty-five of 100 patients recruited had transient ischemic attack or minor stroke: 30 received dual therapy and 35 received monotherapy. Mean onset-to-randomization was 2·3 days in dual therapy group and 3·2 days in monotherapy group (P = 0·03). At day 7, the proportion of patients with ≥1 microembolic signals was 9 of 29 patients in dual therapy group and 18 of 34 patients in monotherapy group (adjusted relative risk reduction 41·4%, 95% CI 29·8-51·1, P < 0·001). The median number of microembolic signals on day 7 was 0 in dual therapy group and 1·0 in monotherapy group (P = 0·046). No patients had intracranial or severe systemic hemorrhage. CONCLUSIONS: Early dual therapy with clopidogrel and aspirin reduces microembolic signals in patients with minor ischemic stroke or transient ischemic attack, without causing significant bleeding complications.International Journal of Stroke 03/2013; DOI:10.1111/ijs.12003 · 4.03 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Several risk scores have been developed to predict the stroke risk after transient ischemic attack (TIA). However, the validation of these scores in different cohorts is still limited. The objective of this study was to elucidate whether these scores were able to predict short-term and long-term risks of stroke in patients with TIA. From the Fukuoka Stroke Registry, 693 patients with TIA were followed up for 3 years. Multivariable-adjusted Cox proportional hazards model was used to assess the hazard ratio of risk factors for stroke. The discriminatory ability of each risk score for incident stroke was estimated by using C-statistics and continuous net reclassification improvement. The multivariable-adjusted Cox proportional hazards model revealed that dual TIA and carotid stenosis were both significant predictors for stroke after TIA, whereas abnormal diffusion-weighted image was not. ABCD3 (C-statistics 0.61) and ABCD3-I (C-statistics 0.66) scores improved the short-term predictive ability for stroke (at 7 days) compared with the ABCD2 score (C-statistics 0.54). Addition of intracranial arterial stenosis (at 3 years, continuous net reclassification improvement 30.5%; P<0.01) and exclusion of abnormal diffusion-weighted imaging (at 3 years, continuous net reclassification improvement 24.0%; P<0.05) further improved the predictive ability for stroke risk until 3 years after TIA. The present study demonstrates that ABCD3 and ABCD3-I scores are superior to the ABCD2 score for the prediction of subsequent stroke in patients with TIA. Addition of neuroimaging in the ABCD3 score may enable prediction of long-term stroke risk after TIA.Stroke 02/2014; 45(2):418-25. DOI:10.1161/STROKEAHA.113.003077 · 6.02 Impact Factor