Electroconvulsive shock ameliorates disease processes and extends survival in huntingtin mutant mice.
ABSTRACT Huntington's disease (HD) is an inherited neurodegenerative disorder caused by expanded polyglutamine repeats in the huntingtin (Htt) protein. Mutant Htt may damage and kill striatal neurons by a mechanism involving reduced production of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and increased oxidative and metabolic stress. Because electroconvulsive shock (ECS) can stimulate the production of BDNF and protect neurons against stress, we determined whether ECS treatment would modify the disease process and provide a therapeutic benefit in a mouse model of HD. ECS (50 mA for 0.2 s) or sham treatment was administered once weekly to male N171-82Q Htt mutant mice beginning at 2 months of age. Endpoints measured included motor function, striatal and cortical pathology, and levels of protein chaperones and BDNF. ECS treatment delayed the onset of motor symptoms and body weight loss and extended the survival of HD mice. Striatal neurodegeneration was attenuated and levels of protein chaperones (Hsp70 and Hsp40) and BDNF were elevated in striatal neurons of ECS-treated compared with sham-treated HD mice. Our findings demonstrate that ECS can increase the resistance of neurons to mutant Htt resulting in improved functional outcome and extended survival. The potential of ECS as an intervention in subjects that inherit the mutant Htt gene merits further consideration.
Full-textDOI: · Available from: Eitan Okun, May 29, 2015
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ABSTRACT: Polyglutamine (polyQ) disorders share many similarities, such as a common mutation type in unrelated human causative genes, neurological character, and certain aspects of pathogenesis, including morphological and physiological neuronal alterations. The similarities in pathogenesis have been confirmed by findings that some experimental in vivo therapy approaches are effective in multiple models of polyQ disorders. Additionally, mouse models of polyQ diseases are often highly similar between diseases with respect to behavior and the features of the disease. The common features shared by polyQ mouse models may facilitate the investigation of polyQ disorders and may help researchers explore the mechanisms of these diseases in a broader context. To provide this context and to promote the understanding of polyQ disorders, we have collected and analyzed research data about the characterization and treatment of mouse models of polyQ diseases and organized them into two complementary Excel data tables. The data table that is presented in this review (Part I) covers the behavioral, molecular, cellular, and anatomic characteristics of polyQ mice and contains the most current knowledge about polyQ mouse models. The structure of this data table is designed in such a way that it can be filtered to allow for the immediate retrieval of the data corresponding to a single mouse model or to compare the shared and unique aspects of many polyQ models. The second data table, which is presented in another publication (Part II), covers therapeutic research in mouse models by summarizing all of the therapeutic strategies employed in the treatment of polyQ disorders, phenotypes that are used to examine the effects of the therapy, and therapeutic outcomes. Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s12035-012-8315-4) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.Molecular Neurobiology 10/2012; 46(2):393-429. DOI:10.1007/s12035-012-8315-4 · 5.29 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Emerging findings suggest that brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) serves widespread roles in regulating energy homeostasis by controlling patterns of feeding and physical activity, and by modulating glucose metabolism in peripheral tissues. BDNF mediates the beneficial effects of energetic challenges such as vigorous exercise and fasting on cognition, mood, cardiovascular function, and on peripheral metabolism. By stimulating glucose transport and mitochondrial biogenesis BDNF bolsters cellular bioenergetics and protects neurons against injury and disease. By acting in the brain and periphery, BDNF increases insulin sensitivity and parasympathetic tone. Genetic factors, a 'couch potato' lifestyle, and chronic stress impair BDNF signaling, and this may contribute to the pathogenesis of metabolic syndrome. Novel BDNF-focused interventions are being developed for obesity, diabetes, and neurological disorders.Trends in Endocrinology and Metabolism 12/2013; DOI:10.1016/j.tem.2013.10.006 · 8.87 Impact Factor
Journal of Neurology 10/2012; 260(1). DOI:10.1007/s00415-012-6720-2 · 3.84 Impact Factor