Synthesis and biological evaluation of tubulysin D analogs related to stereoisomers of tubuvaline.
ABSTRACT The synthesis and biological evaluation of stereoisomers in tubulysin D are described. The stereoselective synthesis of all possible stereoisomers of C-11 and C-13 positions in tubulysin D was achieved by employing 1'-epi-Tuv-Me, 3'-epi-Tuv-Me, and ent-Tuv-Me and their biological properties were evaluated. It is clear that the stereochemistries of the C-11 and C-13 positions in tubulysin D have no practical impact on the inhibition of tubulin polymerization but play a role in the potent antiproliferative activities.
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ABSTRACT: Tubulysins are cytotoxic natural products with promising anti-cancer properties, originally isolated from myxobacterial cultures. Structurally, tubulysins are tetrapeptides, incorporating three unusual (Mep, Tuv and Tup) and one proteinogenic amino acid (Ile). Here we describe the synthesis and structure-activity relationship studies of novel tubulysin U and V analogues, with variations in the central Tuv fragment, which is known to be of paramount importance for tubulysins' potency and hence cytotoxicity, but has seldom been modified in previous studies. Specifically, we replaced the natural iso-propyl and acetoxy functionalities with other structurally related groups. In general, the new analogues showed much lower potency relative to native tubulysin U. However, one of the synthetic analogues () having a MOM function replacing the acetyl group exhibited a 22 nM IC(50) on the HT-29 cell line which is comparable to the IC(50) displayed by tubulysin U (3.8 nM). Furthermore, the synthetic methodology reported herein was found to be flexible enough to deliver different core-modified tubulysin analogues and hence may be regarded as a scalable and convenient strategy for the chemical generation of novel tubulysin analogues.Organic & Biomolecular Chemistry 02/2013; · 3.57 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Covering: July 2010 to June 2012. Previous review: Nat. Prod. Rep., 2011, 28, 1143-1191.Structurally diverse alkaloids containing five-membered heterocyclic subunits, such as imidazole, oxazole, thiazole, as well as their saturated congeners, are widely distributed in terrestrial and marine organisms and microorganisms. These naturally occurring secondary metabolites often exhibit extensive and pharmacologically important biological activities. The latest progress involving isolation, biological activities, chemical synthetic studies, and biosynthetic pathways of these natural products has been summarized in this review.Natural Product Reports 05/2013; · 10.18 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The Tup fragments of tubulysins were synthesized with a tandem reaction as the key step, and unexpected diastereoselectivity was observed in the first Grignard addition stage. The coupling of the enolate of a thiazolyl ketone with chiral sulfinimines furnished the backbone of the Tuv fragment with over 100:1 d.r. and high yield. Thus, tubulysin U and C-4 epi-tubulysin U were prepared in a highly selective and efficient manner. The results of the MTT assay furthermore indicated that C-4 epi-tubulysin U maintained significant growth inhibition activities against several cancer cell lines.Chemistry - An Asian Journal 04/2013; · 4.57 Impact Factor