Article

Ductal carcinoma in-situ: An update for clinical practice

The London Breast Institute, The Princess Grace Hospital, London, UK.
Surgical Oncology (Impact Factor: 2.37). 03/2011; 20(1):e23-31. DOI: 10.1016/j.suronc.2010.08.007
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Ductal carcinoma in-situ (DCIS) is a heterogeneous entity with an elusive natural history. The objective of radiological, histological and molecular characterisation remains to reliably predict the biological behaviour and optimise clinical management strategies. Increases in diagnostic frequency have followed the introduction of mammographic screening and increased utility of magnetic resonance imaging. However, progress remains limited in distinguishing non-progressive incidental lesions from their progressive and clinically relevant counterparts. This article reviews current management strategies for DCIS in the context of recent randomized trials, including the role of sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB), adjuvant radiotherapy (RT) and endocrine treatment.
Literature review facilitated by Medline, PubMed, Embase and Cochrane databases.
DCIS should be managed in the context of a multidisciplinary team. Local control depends upon adequate surgical clearance with margins of at least 2 mm. SLNB is not routinely indicated and should be reserved for those with concurrent or recurrent invasive disease. SLNB can be considered in patients undergoing mastectomy (MX) and those with risk factors for invasion such as palpability, comedo morphology, necrosis or recurrent disease. RT following BCS significantly reduces local recurrence (LR), particularly in those at high-risk. There remains a lack of level-1 evidence supporting the omission of adjuvant RT in selected low-risk cases. Large, multi-centric or recurrent lesions (particularly in cases of prior RT) should be treated by MX with the opportunity for immediate reconstruction. Adjuvant Tamoxifen may reduce the risk of LR in selected cases with hormone sensitive disease.
Further research is required to determine the role of contemporary RT regimes and endocrine therapies. Biological profiling and molecular analysis represent an opportunity to improve our understanding of the tumour biology of this condition and rationalise its treatment. Reliable identification of low-risk lesions could allow treatment to be less radical or safely omitted.

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    • "Although it is considered to be the precursor of the most invasive breast cancers, however not all DCIS will progress to this stage. The overall progression to invasive breast cancer has been reported to range from 14% to 75% [1]. Therefore the challenge in the modern management of DCIS is to avoid over-treatment. "
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    ABSTRACT: Abstract: Ductal carcinoma in-situ DCIS is a heterogeneous entity in breast neoplasm with unpredictable biological behavior. This poses challenge in the management of DCIS. Various trials on DCIS have shown good outcome with integral treatment of adequate surgery, radiotherapy and hormonal therapy. Identification of subgroup of DCIS for radiotherapy and hormonal therapy could improve recurrence rate, contralateral tumours incidence and perhaps overall survival. Various risk score calculations could help to direct radiotherapy and hormonal treatment verses surgery alone and to avoid over treatment. Oncotype DX assay could be a new way of risk calculation to direct types of DCIS treatment. The recent increased use of MRI could increase the detection of DCIS and a more accurate extent of disease estimation. This article is a summary of major literatures and major trials result for DCIS.
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    ABSTRACT: To develop a model incorporating dynamic contrast material-enhanced (DCE) and diffusion-weighted (DW) magnetic resonance (MR) imaging features to differentiate high-nuclear-grade (HNG) from non-HNG ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) in vivo. This HIPAA-compliant study was approved by the institutional review board and requirement for informed consent was waived. A total of 55 pure DCIS lesions (19 HNG, 36 non-HNG) in 52 women who underwent breast MR imaging at 1.5 T with both DCE and DW imaging (b = 0 and 600 sec/mm(2)) were retrospectively reviewed. The following lesion characteristics were recorded or measured: DCE morphology, DCE maximum lesion size, peak initial enhancement at 90 seconds, worst-curve delayed enhancement kinetics, apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC), contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) at DW imaging with b values of 0 and 600 sec/mm(2), and T2 signal effects (measured with CNR at b = 0 sec/mm(2)). Univariate and stepwise multivariate logistic regression modeling was performed to identify MR imaging features that optimally discriminated HNG from non-HNG DCIS. Discriminative abilities of models were compared by using the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC). HNG lesions exhibited larger mean maximum lesion size (P = .02) and lower mean CNR for images with b value of 600 sec/mm(2) (P = .004), allowing discrimination of HNG from non-HNG DCIS (AUC = 0.71 for maximum lesion size, AUC = 0.70 for CNR at b = 600 sec/mm(2)). Differences in CNR for images with b value of 0 sec/mm(2) (P = .025) without corresponding differences in ADC values were observed between HNG and non-HNG lesions. Peak initial enhancement was the only kinetic variable to approach significance (P = .05). No differences in lesion morphology (P = .11) or worst-curve delayed enhancement kinetics (P = .97) were observed. A multivariate model combining CNR for images with b value of 600 sec/mm(2) and maximum lesion size most significantly discriminated HNG from non-HNG (AUC = 0.81). The preliminary findings suggest that DCE and DW MR imaging features may aid in identifying patients with high-risk DCIS. Further study may yield a model combining MR characteristics with histopathologic data to facilitate lesion-specific targeted therapies. © RSNA, 2012.
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