ABSTRACT Dronedarone is a new antiarrhythmic agent, approved in January 2010 for the therapy of atrial fibrillation and for rate control in tachyarrhythmic atrial fibrillation. It was developed with the goal of replicating the high antiarrhythmic potency of amiodarone but with fewer side effects. An essential difference compared to amiodarone is the elimination of the iodine substituents in order to avoid the thyroid side effects and the addition of a methane-sulfonamyl group group in order to reduce lipophilicity. In the meantime, the Guidelines of the European Society of Cardiology list dronedarone in the group of antiarrhythmically effective substances along with the class 1c antiarrhythmia agents and amiodarone that can be administered before catheter ablation. Dronedarone is a well-tolerated antiarrhythmic agent, which due to its side effect profile permits its application in an outpatient setting in patients with atrial fibrillation.
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ABSTRACT: Dronedarone, a benzofurane derivative without iodine substituents, shares the electrophysiologic properties of amiodarone. This study was designed to determine the most appropriate dose of dronedarone for prevention of atrial fibrillation (AF) after cardioversion. Patients with persistent AF were randomly allocated to 800, 1200, 1600 mg daily doses of dronedarone or placebo. The main analysis was conducted on 199/270 patients, who entered the maintenance phase following pharmacological cardioversion or, if unsuccessful, DC cardioversion. Within 6-month follow-up, the time to AF relapse increased on dronedarone 800 mg, with a median of 60 days vs 5.3 days in the placebo group (relative risk reduction 55% [95% CI, 28 to 72%] P=0.001). No significant effect was seen at higher doses. Spontaneous conversion to sinus rhythm on dronedarone occurred in 5.8 to 14.8% of patients (P=0.026). There were no proarrhythmic reactions. Drug-induced QT prolongation was only noticed in the 1600 mg group. Premature drug discontinuations affected 22.6% of subjects given 1600 mg dronedarone versus 3.9% on 800 mg and were mainly due to gastrointestinal side effects. No evidence of thyroid, ocular or pulmonary toxicity was found. Dronedarone, at a 800 mg daily dose, appears to be effective and safe for the prevention of AF relapses after cardioversion. The absence of thyroid side effects and of proarrhythmia are important features of the drug. Further studies are needed to better delineate the antiarrhythmic profile of the drug.European Heart Journal 09/2003; 24(16):1481-7. DOI:10.1016/S0195-668X(03)00321-X · 14.72 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The electrophysiological effects of dronedarone, a new nonionidated analogue of amiodarone were studied after chronic and acute administration in dog Purkinje fibres, papillary muscle and isolated ventricular myocytes, and compared with those of amiodarone by applying conventional microelectrode and patch-clamp techniques. Chronic treatment with dronedarone (2x25 mg(-1) kg(-1) day p.o. for 4 weeks), unlike chronic administration of amiodarone (50 mg(-1) kg(-1) day p.o. for 4 weeks), did not lengthen significantly the QTc interval of the electrocardiogram or the action potential duration (APD) in papillary muscle. After chronic oral treatment with dronedarone a small, but significant use-dependent V(max) block was noticed, while after chronic amiodarone administration a strong use-dependent V(max) depression was observed. Acute superfusion of dronedarone (10 microM), similar to that of amiodarone (10 microM), moderately lengthened APD in papillary muscle (at 1 Hz from 239.6+/-5.3 to 248.6+/-5.3 ms, n=13, P<0.05), but shortened it in Purkinje fibres (at 1 Hz from 309.6+/-11.8 to 287.1+/-10.8 ms, n=7, P<0.05). Both dronedarone (10 microM) and amiodarone (10 microM) superfusion reduced the incidence of early and delayed afterdepolarizations evoked by 1 microM dofetilide and 0.2 microM strophantidine in Purkinje fibres. In patch-clamp experiments 10 microM dronedarone markedly reduced the L-type calcium current (76.5+/-0.7 %, n=6, P<0.05) and the rapid component of the delayed rectifier potassium current (97+/-1.2 %, n=5, P<0.05) in ventricular myocytes. It is concluded that after acute administration dronedarone exhibits effects on cardiac electrical activity similar to those of amiodarone, but it lacks the 'amiodarone like' chronic electrophysiological characteristics.British Journal of Pharmacology 07/2001; 133(5):625-34. DOI:10.1038/sj.bjp.0704106 · 4.99 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Dronedarone, a noniodinated derivative of amiodarone, is under evaluation as a potentially less toxic anti-arrhythmic alternative to amiodarone. The acute and chronic electrophysiologic effects of dronedarone and amiodarone were compared in isolated rabbit atrial muscle by microelectrode techniques. Four-week PO treatment with dronedarone or amiodarone increased action potential duration (APD90) (58 +/- 4 ms control versus 69 +/- 2 ms dronedarone, p < 0.01; 68 +/- 3 ms amiodarone, p < 0.01 for a 100-mg/kg/d dose) and effective refractory period (49 +/- 6 ms control versus 68 +/- 4 ms dronedarone, p < 0.01; 63 +/- 3 ms amiodarone, p < 0.01). The APD90 prolonged reverse rate-dependency. In contrast, acute superfusion with 10 microM dronedarone or amiodarone decreased APD90 (61 +/- 6 ms control versus 53 +/- 4 ms dronedarone, p < 0.05; 52 +/- 6 ms amiodarone, p < 0.05), effective refractory period (50 +/- 5 ms control versus 44 +/- 4 ms dronedarone, p < 0.05; 43 +/- 6 ms amiodarone, p < 0.05), and the maximum upstroke slope of the action potential (Vmax) (188 +/- 9 V/s control versus 182 +/- 11 V/s dronedarone p < 0.05; 182 +/- 11 V/s amiodarone, p < 0.05). Thus, chronic and acute electrophysiologic effects of dronedarone on rabbit atrial muscle are similar to those of amiodarone, suggesting a similar potential against atrial arrhythmias.Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology 05/2002; 39(5):677-84. DOI:10.1097/00005344-200205000-00008 · 2.11 Impact Factor