The Saccadic Re-Centering Bias is Associated with Activity Changes in the Human Superior Colliculus.
ABSTRACT Being able to effectively explore our visual world is of fundamental importance, and it has been suggested that the straight-ahead gaze (primary position) might play a special role in this context. We employed fMRI in humans to investigate how neural activity might be modulated for saccades relative to this putative default position. Using an endogenous cueing paradigm, saccade direction and orbital starting position were systematically manipulated, resulting in saccades toward primary position (centripetal) and away from primary position (centrifugal) that were matched in amplitude, directional predictability, as well as orbital starting position. In accord with earlier research, we found that fMRI activity in the superior colliculus (SC), as well as in the frontal eye fields and the intraparietal sulcus, was enhanced contralateral to saccade direction across all saccade conditions. Furthermore, the SC exhibited a relative activity decrease during re-centering relative to centrifugal saccades, a pattern that was paralleled by faster saccadic reaction times. In contrast, activity within the cortical eye fields was not significantly modulated during re-centering saccades as compared to other saccade types, suggesting that the re-centering bias is predominantly implemented at a subcortical rather than cortical processing stage. Such a modulation might reflect a special coding bias facilitating the return of gaze to a default position in the gaze space in which retinotopic and egocentric reference frames are aligned and from which the visual world can be effectively explored.
- SourceAvailable from: Charles Joseph Bruce[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: We studied the activity of single neurons in the frontal eye fields of awake macaque monkeys trained to perform several oculomotor tasks. Fifty-four percent of neurons discharged before visually guided saccades. Three different types of presaccadic activity were observed: visual, movement, and anticipatory. Visual activity occurred in response to visual stimuli whether or not the monkey made saccades. Movement activity preceded purposive saccades, even those made without visual targets. Anticipatory activity preceded even the cue to make a saccade if the monkey could reliably predict what saccade he had to make. These three different activities were found in different presaccadic cells in different proportions. Forty percent of presaccadic cells had visual activity (visual cells) but no movement activity. For about half of the visual cells the response was enhanced if the monkey made saccades to the receptive-field stimulus, but there was no discharge before similar saccades made without visual targets. Twenty percent of presaccadic neurons discharged as briskly before purposive saccades made without a visual target as they did before visually guided saccades, and had weak or absent visual responses. These cells were defined as movement cells. Movement cells discharged much less or not at all before saccades made spontaneously without a task requirement or an overt visual target. The remaining presaccadic neurons (40%) had both visual and movement activity (visuomovement cells). They discharged most briskly before visually guided eye movements, but also discharged before purposive eye movements made in darkness and responded to visual stimuli in the absence of saccades. There was a continuum of visuomovement cells, from cells in which visual activity predominated to cells in which movement activity predominated. This continuum suggests that although visual cells are quite distinct from movement cells, the division of cell types into three classes may be only a heuristic means of describing the processing flow from visual input to eye-movement output. Twenty percent of visuomovement and movement cells, but fewer than 2% of visual cells, had anticipatory activity. Only one cell had anticipatory activity as its sole response. When the saccade was delayed relative to the target onset, visual cells responded to the target appearance, movement cells discharged before the saccade, and visuomovement cells discharged in different ways during the delay, usually with some discharge following the target and an increase in rate immediately before the saccade. Presaccadic neurons of all types were actively suppressed following a saccade into their response fields.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS)Journal of Neurophysiology 04/1985; 53(3):603-35. · 3.30 Impact Factor
- Journal of Neurophysiology 12/1972; 35(6):915-24. · 3.30 Impact Factor
- Journal of Neurophysiology 08/1972; 35(4):560-74. · 3.30 Impact Factor