The IMAGEN study: Reinforcement-related behaviour in normal brain function and psychopathology

King's College London, MRC Social, Genetic, and Developmental Psychiatry Centre, Institute of Psychiatry, London, UK.
Molecular Psychiatry (Impact Factor: 14.5). 12/2010; 15(12):1128-39. DOI: 10.1038/mp.2010.4
Source: PubMed


A fundamental function of the brain is to evaluate the emotional and motivational significance of stimuli and to adapt behaviour accordingly. The IMAGEN study is the first multicentre genetic-neuroimaging study aimed at identifying the genetic and neurobiological basis of individual variability in impulsivity, reinforcer sensitivity and emotional reactivity, and determining their predictive value for the development of frequent psychiatric disorders. Comprehensive behavioural and neuropsychological characterization, functional and structural neuroimaging and genome-wide association analyses of 2000 14-year-old adolescents are combined with functional genetics in animal and human models. Results will be validated in 1000 adolescents from the Canadian Saguenay Youth Study. The sample will be followed up longitudinally at the age of 16 years to investigate the predictive value of genetics and intermediate phenotypes for the development of frequent psychiatric disorders. This review describes the strategies the IMAGEN consortium used to meet the challenges posed by large-scale multicentre imaging-genomics investigations. We provide detailed methods and Standard Operating Procedures that we hope will be helpful for the design of future studies. These include standardization of the clinical, psychometric and neuroimaging-acquisition protocols, development of a central database for efficient analyses of large multimodal data sets and new analytic approaches to large-scale genetic neuroimaging analyses.

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Available from: Jean-Baptiste Poline, Oct 06, 2015
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    • "-collinear diffusion gradient directions and 4 nondiffusion weighted volumes. More details are available in Schumann et al. [29]. "
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    ABSTRACT: The apolipoprotein E (APOE) ɛ4 allele is the best established genetic risk factor for Alzheimer's disease (AD) and has been previously associated with alterations in structural gray matter and changes in functional brain activity in healthy middle-aged individuals and older non-demented subjects. In order to determine the neural mechanism by which APOE polymorphisms affect white matter (WM) structure, we investigated the diffusion characteristics of WM tracts in carriers and non-carriers of the APOE ɛ4 and ɛ2 alleles using an unbiased whole brain analysis technique (Tract Based Spatial Statistics) in a healthy young adolescent (14 years) cohort. A large sample of healthy young adolescents (n = 575) were selected from the European neuroimaging-genetics IMAGEN study with available APOE status and accompanying diffusion imaging data. MR Diffusion data was acquired on 3T systems using 32 diffusion-weighted (DW) directions and 4 non-DW volumes (b-value = 1,300 s/mm2 and isotropic resolution of 2.4×2.4×2.4 mm). No significant differences in WM structure were found in diffusion indices between carriers and non-carriers of the APOE ɛ4 and ɛ2 alleles, and dose-dependent effects of these variants were not established, suggesting that differences in WM structure are not modulated by the APOE polymorphism. In conclusion, our results suggest that microstructural properties of WM structure are not associated with the APOE ɛ4 and ɛ2 alleles in young adolescence, suggesting that the neural effects of these variants are not evident in 14-year-olds and may only develop later in life.
    Journal of Alzheimer's disease: JAD 09/2015; 47(4-4):977-984. DOI:10.3233/JAD-140519 · 4.15 Impact Factor
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    • "High scores: positive reinforcement motives • Aim: Examination of the development of these four personality traits over a two-year interval • Participants were part of a large longitudinal European multi-center study (IMAGEN) (Schumann et al., 2010) • 8 different European sites (United Kingdom, Ireland, France, "
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    • "Participants were part of a large longitudinal European multi-center study (IMAGEN) (see Schumann et al., 2010). The community-based sample was recruited in local high schools in eight participating sites in Germany, the United Kingdom, Ireland and France (see Figure 1). "
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Adolescence is a time period in which personality changes (Meeus et al., 2011; Pullmann et al., 2006). We examined this development for four substance abuse-related personality traits, namely Hopelessness (H), Anxiety Sensitivity (AS), Impulsivity (IMP) and Sensation Seeking (SS). We further explored whether this change was different for males and females, or for English-, French- and German-speaking adolescents. Methods: We applied the Substance Use Risk Profile Scale (SURPS, Woicik et al., 2009) and assessed 1,408 English, Irish, French, and German adolescents at age 14 and again at age 16 (mean interval 2.01 years, SD = .40, min = 1.0, max = 3.0) within the IMAGEN project (Schumann et al., 2010). We calculated a repeated measures ANOVA including the factors time (baseline vs. follow-up), gender (male vs. female) and language (English vs. German vs. French) and were mainly interested in the main effects of time as well as in the interactions between time and gender, and time and language. Results: IMP was reported as lower relative to two years ago, and the decrease in IMP was highest in French- and English-speaking adolescents. SS was reported higher relative to two years ago, but only in German adolescents. There were no further significant interactions between time and gender or time and language, respectively. Conclusions: Becoming less impulsive over time goes along with the finding that throughout adolescence certain personality traits still changes. Further, our study also revealed cross-cultural differences. Funding / Disclosure of financial interests: This research was supported by the Bundesministerium für Bildung und Forschung (BMBF grant 01EV0711), the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG grants DFG 940/1, SM 80/7-1 and WI 709/10-1) and by European Community’s Sixth Framework Program (LSHM-CT-2007-037286). The authors declare that they have no competing interests. References: Meeus W, Van de Schoot R, Klimstra T, Branje S (2011) Personality Types in Adolescence: Change and Stability and Links With Adjustment and Relationships: A Five-Wave Longitudinal Study. Dev Psychol 47:1181-1195. Pullmann H, Raudsepp L, Allik J (2006) Stability and change in adolescents' personality: A longitudinal study. Eur J Personality 20:447-459. Schumann G, Loth E, Banaschewski T, Barbot A, Barker G, Buchel C, Conrod PJ, Dalley JW, Flor H, Gallinat J, Garavan H, Heinz A, Itterman B, Lathrop M, Mallik C, Mann K, Martinot JL, Paus T, Poline JB, Robbins TW, Rietschel M, Reed L, Smolka M, Spanagel R, Speiser C, Stephens DN, Strohle A, Struve M (2010) The IMAGEN study: reinforcement-related behaviour in normal brain function and psychopathology. Mol Psychiatr 15:1128-1139. Woicik PA, Stewart SH, Pihl RO, Conrod PJ (2009) The substance use risk profile scale: A scale measuring traits linked to reinforcement-specific substance use profiles. Addict Behav 34:1042-1055.
    European Meeting of the International Society for Research on Impulsivity (InSRI), Amsterdam, Netherlands; 08/2015
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