Surveillance of screening-detected cancers (colon and rectum, breast, and cervix) - United States, 2004-2006.
ABSTRACT Population-based screening is conducted to detect diseases or other conditions in persons before symptoms appear; effective screening leads to early detection and treatment, thereby reducing disease-associated morbidity and mortality. Based on systematic reviews of the evidence of the benefits and harms and assessments of the net benefit of screening, the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) recommends population-based screening for colon and rectum cancer, female breast cancer, and uterine cervix cancer. Few publications have used national data to examine the stage at diagnosis of these screening-amenable cancers.
Data were obtained from cancer registries affiliated with CDC's National Program of Cancer Registries (NPCR) and the National Cancer Institute's Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) program. Combined data from the NPCR and SEER programs provide the best source of information on national population-based cancer incidence. Data on cancer screening were obtained from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System. This report provides stage-specific cancer incidence rates and screening prevalence by demographic characteristics and U.S. state.
Approximately half of colorectal and cervical cancer cases and one third of breast cancer cases were diagnosed at a late stage of disease. Incidence rates of late-stage cancer differed by age, race/ethnicity, and state. Incidence rates of late-stage colorectal cancer increased with age and were highest among black men and women. Incidence rates of late-stage breast cancer were highest among women aged 60-79 years and black women. Incidence rates of late-stage cervical cancer were highest among women aged 50-79 years and Hispanic women. The percentage of persons who received recommended screening differed by age, race/ethnicity, and state.
Differences in late-stage cancer incidence rates might be explained partially by differences in screening use.
The findings in this report emphasize the need for ongoing population-based surveillance and reporting to monitor late-stage cancer incidence trends. Screening can identify colorectal, cervical, and breast cancers in earlier and more treatable stages of disease. Multiple factors, including individual characteristics and health behaviors as well as provider and clinical systems factors, might account for why certain populations are underscreened. Cancer control planners, including comprehensive cancer-control programs, can use late-stage cancer incidence and screening prevalence data to identify populations that would benefit from interventions to increase screening utilization and to monitor performance of early detection programs.
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ABSTRACT: Malignancies arising in the large bowel cause the second largest number of deaths from cancer in the Western World. Despite progresses made during the last decades, colorectal cancer remains one of the most frequent and deadly neoplasias in the western countries. A genomic study of human colorectal cancer has been carried out on a total of 31 tumoral samples, corresponding to different stages of the disease, and 33 non-tumoral samples. The study was carried out by hybridisation of the tumour samples against a reference pool of non-tumoral samples using Agilent Human 1A 60-mer oligo microarrays. The results obtained were validated by qRT-PCR. In the subsequent bioinformatics analysis, gene networks by means of Bayesian classifiers, variable selection and bootstrap resampling were built. The consensus among all the induced models produced a hierarchy of dependences and, thus, of variables. After an exhaustive process of pre-processing to ensure data quality--lost values imputation, probes quality, data smoothing and intraclass variability filtering--the final dataset comprised a total of 8, 104 probes. Next, a supervised classification approach and data analysis was carried out to obtain the most relevant genes. Two of them are directly involved in cancer progression and in particular in colorectal cancer. Finally, a supervised classifier was induced to classify new unseen samples. We have developed a tentative model for the diagnosis of colorectal cancer based on a biomarker panel. Our results indicate that the gene profile described herein can discriminate between non-cancerous and cancerous samples with 94.45% accuracy using different supervised classifiers (AUC values in the range of 0.997 and 0.955).BMC Cancer 01/2012; 12:43. · 3.01 Impact Factor
Article: A phase I trial of tailored radiation therapy with concomitant cetuximab and cisplatin in the treatment of patients with cervical cancer: A gynecologic oncology group study.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Epithelial growth factor receptor over-expression correlates with poor outcomes in cervical cancer. This study assessed the safety of chemoradiation with cetuximab in the treatment of women with newly diagnosed locally advanced cervical cancer. METHODS: Patients received weekly cisplatin 30 and 40mg/m(2) [dose level (DL) 1 and 2] and cetuximab 400mg/m(2) loading dose and then 250mg/m(2) for a total of six weeks with radiotherapy (RT). Patients with nodal metastases received extended field radiation therapy (EFRT). At the maximum tolerated dose, feasibility was evaluated in a 20 patient two-stage, sequential design. RESULTS: In patients receiving pelvic RT, seven were treated at DL 1 with one dose-limiting toxicity (DLT) (febrile neutropenia with grade 3 diarrhea) and three at DL 2 with two DLTs (grade 3 rash and delay in RT >8weeks). The feasibility phase was opened at DL1. Of the 21 patients treated there was one DLT (grade 4 CVA). Median RT duration was 50days (range, 42-70). In patients receiving EFRT, nine were treated at DL 1 with 1 DLT (grade 3 mucositis) and 24 in the feasibility phase with eight DLTs [delay in RT >8weeks due to toxicity (2) and one each with grade 3 or 4 small bowel obstruction, embolism, mucositis, mucositis with hypokalemia, pain with headache, and platelets with mucositis and headache]. Median EFRT duration was 56days (range, 36-74). CONCLUSIONS: For patients receiving pelvic RT, cisplatin and cetuximab were feasible. For patients receiving EFRT, combination of cisplatin and cetuximab was not feasible.Gynecologic Oncology 09/2012; · 3.89 Impact Factor
Article: Exploring perceptions of colorectal cancer and fecal immunochemical testing among African Americans in a North Carolina community.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: African Americans have a lower colorectal cancer screening rate than whites and higher disease incidence and mortality. Despite wide acceptance of colonoscopy for accurate screening, increasing promotion of high-sensitivity stool test screening, such as the fecal immunochemical test (FIT), may narrow racial, ethnic, and socioeconomic disparities in screening. This study provides formative research data to develop an intervention to increase colorectal cancer screening among underinsured and uninsured African Americans in central North Carolina. We held 4 focus groups to explore knowledge, beliefs, and attitudes about colorectal cancer screening, particularly FIT. Participants (n = 28) were African American adults recruited from neighborhoods with high levels of poverty and unemployment. Constructs from the diffusion of innovation theory were used to develop the discussion guide. In all groups, participants noted that lack of knowledge about colorectal cancer contributes to low screening use. Attitudes about FIT sorted into 4 categories of "innovation characteristics": relative advantage of FIT compared with no screening and with other screening tests; compatibility with personal beliefs and values; test complexity; and test trialability. A perceived barrier to FIT and other stool tests was risk of incurring costs for diagnostic follow-up. Community-based FIT screening interventions should include provider recommendation, patient education to correctly perform FIT, modified FIT design to address negative attitudes about stool tests, and assurance of affordable follow-up for positive FIT results.Preventing chronic disease 11/2011; 8(6):A134. · 1.82 Impact Factor