Transmembrane guanylate cyclase in intestinal pathophysiology.
ABSTRACT Production of cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) by guanylate cyclase is of critical importance to gastrointestinal physiology. Tight regulation of cGMP concentration is necessary for proper intestinal secretion and intestinal epithelial cell proliferative and apoptotic homeostasis. This review focuses on recent work detailing the role of a subset of transmembrane guanylate cyclases in the pathophysiology of intestinal secretory and motility disorders and intestinal epithelial cell transformation. Also considered is the potential for therapeutic manipulation of intestinal guanylate cyclase/cGMP signaling for the correction of chronic constipation and gastrointestinal cancer.
Recent work in mice and humans suggests a role for transmembrane guanylate cyclases in intestinal fluid secretion as well as hormonal enteric-renal signaling which mediates postprandial natriuresis. Transmembrane guanylate cyclases are also important in gastrointestinal transit rate and motility. Ongoing clinical trials have found that guanylate cyclase activating peptides are safe and effective in the treatment of constipation-predominant irritable bowel syndrome and chronic constipation. In addition, accumulating evidence indicates that membrane-associated guanylate cyclase receptors regulate intestinal epithelial cell homeostatic proliferation and apoptosis as well as gastrointestinal malignancy. The anticancer activity of cGMP signaling in animal studies suggests additional therapeutic applications for guanylate cyclase agonists.
Progress toward understanding gastrointestinal transmembrane guanylate cyclase/cGMP physiology has recently accelerated due to definitive in-vitro studies and work using gene-targeted animal models and has facilitated the development of safe and effective drugs designed to regulate cGMP production in the intestine. Current work should be directed toward a detailed understanding of cGMP effector pathways and the manner in which subcellular concentrations of cGMP regulate them to influence intestinal health and disease.
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ABSTRACT: Guanylate Cyclase C (GC-C) is an apically-oriented transmembrane receptor that is expressed on epithelial cells of the intestine. Activation of GC-C by the endogenous ligands guanylin or uroguanylin elevates intracellular cGMP and is implicated in intestinal ion secretion, cell proliferation, apoptosis, intestinal barrier function, as well as the susceptibility of the intestine to inflammation. Our aim was to determine if GC-C is required for host defense during infection by the murine enteric pathogen Citrobacter rodentium of the family Enterobacteriacea. GC-C+/+ control mice or those having GC-C genetically ablated (GC-C-/-) were administered C. rodentium by orogastric gavage and analyzed at multiple time points up to post-infection day 20. Commensal bacteria were characterized in uninfected GC-C+/+ and GC-C-/- mice using 16S rRNA PCR analysis. GC-C-/- mice had an increase in C. rodentium bacterial load in stool relative to GC-C+/+. C. rodentium infection strongly decreased guanylin expression in GC-C+/+ mice and, to an even greater degree, in GC-C-/- animals. Fluorescent tracer studies indicated that mice lacking GC-C, unlike GC-C+/+ animals, had a substantial loss of intestinal barrier function early in the course of infection. Epithelial cell apoptosis was significantly increased in GC-C-/- mice following 10 days of infection and this was associated with increased frequency and numbers of C. rodentium translocation out of the intestine. Infection led to significant liver histopathology in GC-C-/- mice as well as lymphocyte infiltration and elevated cytokine and chemokine expression. Relative to naive GC-C+/+ mice, the commensal microflora load in uninfected GC-C-/- mice was decreased and bacterial composition was imbalanced and included outgrowth of the Enterobacteriacea family. This work demonstrates the novel finding that GC-C signaling is an essential component of host defense during murine enteric infection by reducing bacterial load and preventing systemic dissemination of attaching/effacing-lesion forming bacterial pathogens such as C. rodentium.BMC Gastroenterology 09/2013; 13(1):135. DOI:10.1186/1471-230X-13-135 · 2.11 Impact FactorThis article is viewable in ResearchGate's enriched formatRG Format enables you to read in context with side-by-side figures, citations, and feedback from experts in your field.
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ABSTRACT: Guanylate Cyclase C (GC-C; Gucy2c) is a transmembrane receptor expressed in intestinal epithelial cells. Activation of GC-C by its secreted ligand guanylin stimulates intestinal fluid secretion. Familial mutations in GC-C cause chronic diarrheal disease or constipation and are associated with intestinal inflammation and infection. Here, we investigated the impact of GC-C activity on mucosal immune responses. We utilized intraperitoneal injection of lipopolysaccharide to elicit a systemic cytokine challenge and then measured pro-inflammatory gene expression in colonic mucosa. GC-C(+/+) and GC-C(-/-) mice were bred with interleukin (IL)-10 deficient animals and colonic inflammation were assessed. Immune cell influx and cytokine/chemokine expression was measured in the colon of wildtype, IL-10(-/-), GC-C(+/+)IL-10(-/-) and GC-C(-/-)IL-10(-/-) mice. GC-C and guanylin production were examined in the colon of these animals and in a cytokine-treated colon epithelial cell line. Relative to GC-C(+/+) animals, intraperitoneal lipopolysaccharide injection into GC-C(-/-) mice increased proinflammatory gene expression in both whole colon tissue and in partially purified colonocyte isolations. Spontaneous colitis in GC-C(-/-)IL-10(-/-) animals was significantly more severe relative to GC-C(+/+)IL-10(-/-) mice. Unlike GC-C(+/+)IL-10(-/-) controls, colon pathology in GC-C(-/-)IL-10(-/-) animals was apparent at an early age and was characterized by severely altered mucosal architecture, crypt abscesses, and hyperplastic subepithelial lesions. F4/80 and myeloperoxidase positive cells as well as proinflammatory gene expression were elevated in GC-C(-/-)IL-10(-/-) mucosa relative to control animals. Guanylin was diminished early in colitis in vivo and tumor necrosis factor α suppressed guanylin mRNA and protein in intestinal goblet cell-like HT29-18-N2 cells. The GC-C signaling pathway blunts colonic mucosal inflammation that is initiated by systemic cytokine burst or loss of mucosal immune cell immunosuppression. These data as well as the apparent intestinal inflammation in human GC-C mutant kindred underscore the importance of GC-C in regulating the response to injury and inflammation within the gut.PLoS ONE 11/2013; 8(11):e79180. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0079180 · 3.53 Impact FactorThis article is viewable in ResearchGate's enriched formatRG Format enables you to read in context with side-by-side figures, citations, and feedback from experts in your field.
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ABSTRACT: Analysis of knockout animals indicates that 3',5'cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) has an important role in gut homeostasis but the signaling mechanism is not known. The goals of this study were to test whether increasing cGMP could affect colon homeostasis and determine the mechanism. We increased cGMP in the gut of Prkg2(+/+) and Prkg2(-/-) mice by treating with the PDE5 inhibitor Vardenafil (IP). Proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis in the colon mucosa were then quantitated. Vardenafil (Vard) treatment increased cGMP in colon mucosa of all mice, but reduced proliferation and apoptosis, and increased differentiation only in Prkg2(+/+) mice. Vard and cGMP treatment also increased dual specificity protein phosphatase 10 (DUSP10) expression and reduced phospho-c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) levels in the colon mucosa of Prkg2(+/+) but not Prkg2(-/-) mice. Treatment of Prkg2(-/-) mice with the JNK inhibitor SP600125 reversed the defective homeostasis observed in these animals. Activation of protein kinase G2 (PKG2) in goblet-like LS174T cells increased DUSP10 expression and reduced JNK activity. PKG2 also increased goblet cell-specific MUC2 expression in LS174T cells, and this process was blocked by DUSP10-specific siRNA. The ability of cGMP signaling to inhibit JNK-induced apoptosis in vivo was demonstrated using dextran sodium sulfate (DSS) to stress the colon epithelium. Vard was a potent inhibitor of DSS-induced epithelial apoptosis, and significantly blocked pathological endpoints in this model of experimental colitis. In conclusion, Vard treatment activates cGMP signaling in the colon epithelium. Increased PKG2 activity alters homeostasis by suppressing proliferation and apoptosis while promoting differentiation. The PKG2-dependent mechanism was shown to involve increased DUSP10 and subsequent inhibition of JNK activity.Cell Death and Differentiation advance online publication, 22 November 2013; doi:10.1038/cdd.2013.163.Cell death and differentiation 11/2013; DOI:10.1038/cdd.2013.163 · 8.24 Impact Factor